Archaeology and Stone Tools

Have you ever wondered how you would know that early stone tools were of human design? This is a broad question, for as we wander through the rooms of a natural history museum we ask ourselves several pertinent questions regarding the contents. Many of us may question who fabricated these primitive items or maybe how…

Have you ever wondered how you would know that early stone tools were of human design? This is a broad question, for as we wander through the rooms of a natural history museum we ask ourselves several pertinent questions regarding the contents. Many of us may question who fabricated these primitive items or maybe how old are the utensils we are looking at. These same questions have been solicited over the years by members of the archaeological community and most often they have derived some sort of equivalent agreement as to an answer. Research completed reports that the most common early material for tools and weapons was stone. Now the only question remaining would be whether these artifacts were created by humans or natural means.

To gather insight within these questions we would need to initially examine where they were discovered. When an archaeologist scrutinizes the remains found at an archaeological dig, they frequently unearth stone substances which appear to be made by early humans. Possibly the shape of the tool or weapon would reveal that it was created by human actions. Perhaps it can be shown that the artifact was created by means of pounding with another object or the object might be symmetrical in appearance suggesting certain human interventions.

Although at first glance an archaeologist may lay claim upon the concept that the found object of human origin however he must still demonstrate without fail that the object is in fact a tool or weapon. Can he or she prove that the potential cutting tool was in fact used for its intended purpose of cutting? In addition, the archaeologist may elect to survey the adjacent area where the object was discovered. Are there similar items located nearby? Are these items similar to those found at other digs? Finally after due consideration has been expired the archaeologist may conclude that the item is an artifact from human activities.

An example of such similarities mentioned above can be seen by a study of the Oldowan from 1.2 million years ago. This is the oldest acknowledged stone tool location and actually marks a major stepping stone for human creativity. It was the Homo habilis from Tanzania who was an ancestor of our familiar Homo sapiens that created these tools. The archaeologists who decided that they were from human developments discovered similar artifacts from several other locales within the eastern, central, and southern African areas. These were “choppers” or tools used for cutting, chopping or scraping.

To determine if an object is of human origin presents a major challenge to the archaeologist's intellect as well as to their imagination. Typically, additional questions are typically raised as the explorer attempts to relate the origin of their found objects.

Art, Health and the Muse

Does art heal the artist? Can art have any therapeutic effects? We may all remember that several of the most well-known artists lived very troubled lives: Caravaggio's criminal behavior, Modigliani self-destructiveness and addiction, Van Gogh's instability, Edvard Munch's emotional turmoil, Rothko's sad departure and Picasso's narcissistic behavior. They are but a few and just in…

Does art heal the artist? Can art have any therapeutic effects?

We may all remember that several of the most well-known artists lived very troubled lives: Caravaggio's criminal behavior, Modigliani self-destructiveness and addiction, Van Gogh's instability, Edvard Munch's emotional turmoil, Rothko's sad departure and Picasso's narcissistic behavior.

They are but a few and just in visual arts.

These can not be minor exceptions, given that they intensively dedicated their entire lives to art.

So I'm afraid we do not have good news: art does not heal the artist, in fact at times it might become the accomplice of whatever psychological condition a vulnerable artist might be suffering from.

Perhaps to be fair we should say that art can equally flourish among the healthy and the unhealthy, but it's indifferent to both.

But has this rather grim scenario always been like this?

For centuries or even millennia artists were mostly artisans at the service of church and aristocracy.

Individuality in art may be a rather new phenomenon, one that in the western world may have begun during the humanistic era and finally flourished towards the end of the 19th century.

It's the era of Einstein's Theory of Relativism that which marked the breaking point. The Renaissance ideal of representing an objective world through the single point of view of perspective crumbled. Perception of reality fragmented into infinite points of view and infinite worlds. Cubism was born and art was destined to never be the same.

The shift from the idea of ​​an unquestionable and absolute reality supervised by an ominous divine eye to a personal point of view fed the artists' inherent narcissism, hence the modern notion of “self-expression”.

In this context many modern artists found in their own dark emotions and twists of mind an inexhaustible source of themes for their own work. They saw themselves as uniquely gifted animals with a unique vision. No longer a voice of the institution, but rather against it.

Art for many of them became a new lover, an intimate object of pleasure, an available dame who always says yes. It later culminated in the idea of ​​”artist as a brand” inaugurated by Andy Warhol.

The cult of personality blossomed.

After the wonderful artwork produced in the early 20th century this narcissistic and solipsistic approach came with a price for the artists.

While it's certainly overly reductive or even incorrect to pin point narcissism as the sole cause of psychological fluctuations, we should focus our attention to it because it's part of everyone's psychological development during childhood, but in several artists it becomes an unresolved issue.

“[…] the danger inherent in this line of development is exaggerated self-importance, a megalomaniac ego consciousness which thinks itself independent of everything […] Overvaluation of the ego, as a symptom of immature consciousness, is compensated by a depressive self-destruction … “- Erich Neumann,” The Origins and History of Consciousness “.

Even the most wounded artists had their moments of megalomania, so much that their relationships could not keep up with their self-centeredness. Art became “MY art” and the artist the new God.

And yet even in this rather pessimistic scenario art simply flows, even beautifully, with serene abandonment as whatever the world presents: light, darkness, joy, sorrow, depravity and perversions. She dances to all of it without distinctions.

At this point there's one particular story worth mentioning, one that might uplift us a bit and shed some light onto the possible healthy relationship between artists and their work.

It's about Matisse's last creation: the glass windows and art for the Chapelle du Rosaire de Vence , a small Dominican church in France.

Matisse was already at the end of his life. He had gone through cancer, an experience that changed his views on how to approach his own work.

In spite of not being christian he made the statement “Art is my God”, since his desire of beautifying the small chapel.

It's an important statement because it comes with the understanding that art for him did not have to be a self-serving product any longer, but it became what we can call the realm of the Other . Other as the Transpersonal, without necessarily making any religious implications.

We can think of it as Language, not merely speech, but that which belongs to nobody and yet is the bridge that connects everything.

In his case, due to his culture, he chose Christianity as a metaphoric vehicle for this understanding, but it could have been anything else.

Matisse's statement reminds me of something our culture has lost: the myth of the Muse. Muses were believed to be the true singers of poems of which the bard was simply the messenger for the people.

“Sing in me, Muse, and through me tell the story …” – Homer, The Odissey

Such bards did not need to see themselves as creative personalities, but approached their poems with the humility of the ordinary man who's lucky enough to hear the song of the Muse. Their stories remained in the field of the Other, where they belong.

If this seems excessively mystical for today's positivist mindset let's just notice how we call creativity does not actually mean “creation out of nothing”. It's rather an alchemical process (in a Jungian sense) in which symbolic material comes together in a different form. Such material belongs to no one, it's Other to the individual. In fact we could go further and say there's no demarcation line between the individual and the Other, except in the imaginary notions of the mind.

There Against against all norms and contemporary cultural cages we can bravely and humbly contemplate this evidence and give once again credit to the Muse, the Spirits or any other concept we might enjoy as symbol of the mysterious real in which all songs endlessly play.

We can finally get the “artist” out of the way and pay homage to the only true source of inspiration that kept poking at us regardless of our unfavorable inclinations.

In the end if art itself does not heal the artist, the artist can let art become the expression of his / her own alchemical process and hopefully uplift others by celebrating life as the magical theater it is, with its cycles of dark days followed by the most luminous ones.

This way art will keep expressing all colors of life in the form of beauty and wonderment and the Muse will remind us that she always sings for us to dance together.

What Are Magazine Ships?

The magazine is the name of a place where ammunition is stored on board a vessel and included explosive materials. The London Company was quite strict in the weapons sent to the colony and the affairs of the magazine were administered by a director who was assisted by a committee of five counselors. One the…

The magazine is the name of a place where ammunition is stored on board a vessel and included explosive materials. The London Company was quite strict in the weapons sent to the colony and the affairs of the magazine were administered by a director who was assisted by a committee of five counselors. One the cargo was received into the colony, the accounts thereof were required to be passed upon by a team of investigators specifically nominated in a Quarter Court. Thus, the weapons received into the colony for defensive maneuvers were carefully guarded as they were sorely needed by the colonists as a defense against a huge population of marauding Indian tribes in the region.

This means that the adventurers held separate meetings to conduct all routine business affairs. During the settlement of Jamestown, no outside trader was allowed to ship supplies into the Colony. The first vessels were referred to as Supply ships because they transported supplies into the Colony as well as a those passengers suggesting to stay in Virginia. Fevers, dysentery and Indian attacks were a way of life and restricted the settlers to stay within the confines of a palisade fence. The first ten years or so, a number of Supply ships arrived in the colony and it was not uncommon for the settlers to assume the return voyage to England in search of a new wife to replace the one which had died.

After the year of 1619, the vessel which conveyed articles and supplies into the Jamestown settlement were called a magazine ships. The articles purchased by the adventurers who entered into a joint stock (known as the magazine) were delivered by the magazine ship to the New World. Also, its cargo was bound to necessities. Several immigrants were designated to take charge of the goods both before and after the vessel arrived in Jamestown. The first magazine vessel was called the Susan , a small vessel whose cargo was restricted only to that clothing which the Colonists needed the most. The goods of the Susan were placed in the care of Abraham Piersy as the Cape Merchant, both during the voyage and after Virginia was reached. As the struggling colonists kept their chores, the only commodities produced were those which secured a profit when sold in England, such as tobacco and sassafras. The exported cargo was then released for the contents of the arriving magazine ship.

The Trial of Captain Kidd: Pirate or Privateer?

Captain William Kidd was born in Dundee, Scotland sometime around 1654, however, resided in Massachusetts where he owned a large house and first began his career as a privateer. Privateers were not pirates, but licensed fortune hunters hired by various countries and dominions, including the American Colonies. In the beginning, William Kidd took to the…

Captain William Kidd was born in Dundee, Scotland sometime around 1654, however, resided in Massachusetts where he owned a large house and first began his career as a privateer. Privateers were not pirates, but licensed fortune hunters hired by various countries and dominions, including the American Colonies. In the beginning, William Kidd took to the sea and soon made a name for himself as a skilled, hardworking seaman. It was during 1689, when he was employed as a privateer, to capture French vessels, that he took his first prize. Subsequently, the ship was re-named the Blessed William put under the command of the Governor of Nevis. He then into New York just in time to save the governor there from a conspiracy. While in New York, he wed a wealthy widow. Not long afterwards, upon visiting England, he became friends with the Lord of Bellomont, who was to be the new Governor of New York. Such friendships enabled him to be well-connected and as rich as any skilled seaman during the 17th century. In fact, it appeared as though the sky was the limit for the young captain. Thus, Lord Bellomont and some of his friends were influential in suggesting that Kidd be given a contract to privateer which would have allowed him to attack pirates as well as French vessels. It was during a time when England was at war with France and because of the dangers against the open seas, piracy was common. The suggestion was not accepted by the government, but Bellomont and his friends decided to fund the adventure themselves and thus establish Captain Kidd up as a privateer privileged to attack French vessels or pirates with the stipulation that he share his treasure with the investors. For this adventure, he was given the 34-gun Adventure Galley and set sail for the first time as privateer during May of 1696.

After about 18 months on the high seas, Kidd and his crew, unable to capture a French vessel, were disturbed. There was a talk of mutiny but finally in August of 1697, he attacked a convoy of Indian treasure ships, but was driven off by an East India Company Man of War. This was an act of piracy and clearly not in the charter of William Kidd. Also, about this time, Kidd killed a mutinous gunner named William Moore by hitting him in the head with a heavy wooden bucket.

On January 30, 1698, the luck of Captain Kidd finally changed. He captured the Queddah Merchant, a treasure ship heading home from the Far East. It was not really fair game as a prize because the ship a Moorish vessel with cargo owned by Armenians, captained by an Englishman named Wright. Allegedly, it sailed with French papers: this was sufficient for Kidd, who sold off the cargo and divided the spoils with his men. The holds of the merchantman were bursting with valuable cargo, and the prize for Kidd and his pirates was 5,000 pounds, or well over two million dollars in the currency of today. Kidd and his pirates were rich men by those standards. Setting out for Madagascar and the Indian Ocean, a known island inhabited by pirates, he and his crew found very few French vessels to take. About a third of his crew fell ill and died of diseases while the rest became surly because of the lack of prizes. More than two years had expired, and the treasure went undelivered to the Massachusetts investors.

Not long afterwards, Kidd ran into a pirate ship captained by a notorious pirate named Culliford. What happened between the two men is unknown. According to Captain Charles Johnson, a contemporary historian, Kidd and Culliford greeted each other warmly and traded supplies and news. But during this exchange, many of his crew deserted him, running off with their share of the treasure while others joined the pirate Culliford. At his trial, Kidd claimed that he was not strong enough to fight Culliford and that most of his men had abandoned him to join the pirates. He said that he was allowed to keep the ships, but only after all weapons and supplies were taken. In any event, Kidd swapped the leaking Adventure Galley for the fit Queddah Merchant and sailed for the Caribbean.

Meanwhile, the news that Captain Kidd had turned to piracy reached England. Bellomont and his wealthy friends, who were very important members of the Government, quickly distanced themselves from the enterprise. Robert Livingston, a friend and fellow Scotsman who knew the King personally, was deeply involved in the Kidd adventure. Meanwhile, Livingston turned on Kidd, trying willingly to keep secret the names of the promoters. Bellomont managed to publish a proclamation of amnesty for the pirates, but Kidd and Henry Avery were specifically excluded from it. For this reason, certain members of the former crew would later accept a pardon in exchange for testimony against Captain Kidd. When Kidd reached the Caribbean, he learned that he was now considered a pirate by the authorities and decided to go to New York, where his friend, Lord Bellomont, could protect him until he was able to clear his name. In this case, he abandoned his vessel and instead captained a smaller ship to New York. But as he near the colonies, as a precaution, buried his treasure on Gardiner Island, a site near Long Island in New York City. Upon arriving in New York, he was arrested forthwith and Lord Bellomont refused to believe his stories as to what had transpired. To save his reputation, he divulged the location of his treasure on Gardiner Island, and it was recovered.

After spending a year in prison, Kidd was sent to England to face trial. Meanwhile certain members of his crew brave testimon in Charleston, South Carolina, in the form of depositions. In 1701. John Dove (or defoe), mariner, swore that he was na passenger on the ship Adventure Galley under the command of Captain Kidd when they were in Madagascar and the St. Louis. Thomas Islands of the West Indies. Sam Bradley, a brother-in-law of Captain William Kidd cave an affidavit in Charleston, stating that he was opposed to turning pirate and that while he was sickly, he had been put ashore on the Isle of St. Paul. Thomas and left to die. Here, a year later, Bradley was pardoned by Governor James Moore of Charleston.

The sensational trial occurred on May 8, 1701. Kidd swore that he had never actually turned pirate. But the investors and other concerned parties had managed to exonerate themselves and the flimsy evidence of the sworn affidavits as well as the death of Mr. Moore, a rebellious gunner, mounted against him and he was found guilty. Kidd now attempted to negotiate for his life in exchange for the bulk of the treasure removed from the Queddah Merchant The authorities denied. Kidd was hung on May 23, 1701 and his body was put into an iron cage hanging along the River Thames, where it would serve as a warning for other pirates. The site of the real treasure of gold and silver was never divulged, although Kidd insured until the end of his life that he had buried another treasure somewhere in the Indies.

Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby: Becoming Tom’s Anima Woman

In F. Scott Fitzgerald's novel The Great Gatsby, published in 1925, Daisy Buchanan and her husband Tom live in the fashionably affluent East Egg off Long Island Sound. While Tom can not move past his football days in New Haven, full of machismo and bravado and as Nick describes him, forever seeking “the dramatic turbulence…

In F. Scott Fitzgerald's novel The Great Gatsby, published in 1925, Daisy Buchanan and her husband Tom live in the fashionably affluent East Egg off Long Island Sound. While Tom can not move past his football days in New Haven, full of machismo and bravado and as Nick describes him, forever seeking “the dramatic turbulence of some irrecoverable football game,” Daisy languishes in the sultry summer heat of New York with little to occupy her time or her thoughts. It is into this setting that her second cousin Nick Caraway re-enters her life, taking a position as a bond salesman in New York, and with him, also returning to her life, is his neighbor, Daisy's former impoverished lover Jay Gatsby, now a wealthy but illit entrepreneur. Earlier Daisy had married Tom because, as she tells Gatsby, “Rich girls do not marry poor boys.” At the outset of their marriage, Tom began openly entertaining a series of mistresses, even taking Nick on an excursion to visit his current diversion Myrtle Wilson. Daisy is unhappy but reliably quiet about it, playing “the little fool,” a role to which anima women feel resigned. Here recognizes Daisy's need to maintain her life of ease and pleasure surrounded by wealth and position, which makes it easier for him to control her. He cuts her off abruptly when he's no longer interested in listening to her; he criticizes her choice of words; he responds to her desires with reluct. Here is conspicuously absent for the birth of their child, and the disillusioned Daisy admits to Nick, “I'm glad it's a girl. a beautiful little fool. ” Tom's paternal place with the childlike Daisy justifies his habit of going “off on a spree,” but in order to renew her trust, he says he always comes back and in his heart he loves her.

Killing the Mistress Again

Gatsby becomes part of Daisy and Tom's social circle, but when Tom accuses him of trying to steal his wife away, a wicked argument ensues, and in a moment of rage and desperation, Daisy goes off with Gatsby, driving his car. They pass Wilson's garage, Tom's mistress Myrtle coming running out to them, and Daisy swerves toward her, killing her instantly. Afterward Nick looks at Daisy and Tom through the window of their great mansion on East Egg as they sit across the kitchen table from each other. Nick says, “There was an unmistakable air of natural intimacy about the picture and anyone would have said they were conspiring together.” In Daisy's artificial but protective world, Tom convinces Myrtle's husband that it is Gatsby who was the lover and Gatsby who was the one driving the death car. A distraught George shoots Gatsby before turning the gun on himself. Daisy and Tom leave for an extended holiday, and only Nick and Gatsby's father attend the funeral. Here proclaims his justification to Nick for the loss of his mistress Myrtle when he looks at the box of dog biscuits, but it is short lived. Myrtle is expendable and her death as well as Gatsby's is soon treated as just a reminder of their careless past that, as Nick observes, they leave behind for other people to clean up.

Tom's Anima Woman

Daisy manipulates her actions with Gatsby to be the woman he imagines, the one he has imagined for five years. Yet when she must confront the risk of losing here and the lifestyle he represents, and even more so the risk of paying for the hit-and-run death of Tom's mistress, she once again settles into the role that reflect Tom's anima. Her compliance is the price she agreements to pay for security. She is not prepared to give up the advantages she has with Tom, even if it means losing the romantic illusion of Gatsby. She can not do otherwise. She must be Tom's childlike Daisy who needs him, regardless of his scornful treatment of her, and therefore Gatsby must die to restore their relationship, emotionally unhealthy as it is. This anima woman can not find her own intrinsic value when she has built a life so utterly dependent upon materialism, the theme of much of Fitzgerald's jazz age writing.

We The Citizens Of One Nation

I felt completely at home as I looked around the room and listened to what our facilitator had to say – a feeling that often eludes me even in my own country, a country in which I was born and raised. Wondering why I felt this warmth, I studied my immediate environment to get to…

I felt completely at home as I looked around the room and listened to what our facilitator had to say – a feeling that often eludes me even in my own country, a country in which I was born and raised.

Wondering why I felt this warmth, I studied my immediate environment to get to the bottom of this sensation. It was a room full of people from over twenty different countries coming together to pursue a common interest: how to create and maintain a sustainable world by applying certain principles to our various work ethics and businesses.

We brainstormed, analyzed, deciphered, assembled and interpreted information and case studies, all contributing ideas and evolving knowledge shaped by our diverse cultures, experiences and backgrounds. Many times we agreed to disagree as we all tried to convince each other to adopt new perceptions, expressing ourselves in a relaxed atmosphere with no judgment.

And then it hit me! Here we were, people from different countries, races and religion who really did not see borders, color or creed. In that room, we were just people! Communication flowed without prejudice and a sweet smell of complete comfort and acceptance seemed to consistently fill the air.

We realized that as individuals, we were more similar than we were different. We acknowledged with silent respect, that more can be gained by embracing that difference, than reacting with fear to it. This notification seemed to float like halos over our heads.

I learnt a lot from just observing and interacting with my newfound friends. I met a lady from Saudi Arabia who works at the Saudi Stock exchange. She totally changed my morbid perception of women's rights in her country in a ten minute conversation.

I had lunch with a Singaporean gentle man and an Indian lady and we all discussed about our childhood and growing up, and if I had closed my eyes at that instant, I would have sworn we all grew up in Warri (my birth town) because all our experiences were so similar.

Getting to know this interesting group, I found out that most of us lived in foreign countries or had freely absorbed new cultures. Some spoke several languages ​​and had even married spouses from other nationalities. We all appeared to share a kindred spirit for diversity.

And then of course every gathering has its little group who just naturally bond closer than others, Mark, Musa and I had that bond and still keep in touch till today.

I left INSEAD in Singapore described that I was not quite disadvantaged as I had previously thought I was with my radical opinions of non-conformity. Growing up in Nigeria, I had always reverted the concept of doing things as they had always been done and questioned why set African rules could not evolve with the times.

As a child with a lot of inquisitive questions, I would most times be answered by older people with the retort: ​​”Because I said so” or “Because that's the way it has always been” or “That's how it should be” and most annoying: “you ask too many questions, why do not you just let it be and be quiet?” But I always could not let it be and so, earned the title of being stubborn.

With the discovery of my new world and its citizens however, every question I asked was met with an answer of a personal opinion added with a suggestion of a solution to my inquiry. It was absolutely refreshing!

Armed with the knowledge that I was not crazy but just misunderstood, I read that forgave those I felt harshly judged me for my intrinsic way of reasoning. I am now more accommodating people who regard me as “stubborn”, people I wish could let go of what I feel is a one-dimensional perspective.

How I wish we were the majority and that I could hear a louder chant of our anthem and pledge:
“We the citizens of one nation- a global nation!”

History of the Commended Libertarian Women of Ancient India

Two young ladies, Atreyi and Vasanti, meet by chance amid an excursion and begin a conversation. Atreyi advises Vasanti that she is making a trip towards the south looking for better education; however, she is a student at a college, which is popular to a great degree in the north; her teacher's distraction with his…

Two young ladies, Atreyi and Vasanti, meet by chance amid an excursion and begin a conversation. Atreyi advises Vasanti that she is making a trip towards the south looking for better education; however, she is a student at a college, which is popular to a great degree in the north; her teacher's distraction with his progressing novel means he has little time to show her anything of utilization. Vasanti concurs this move bodes well.

These young women are not contemporary urban Indians. They were characters in an eighth century Sanskrit play, 'Uttararamacharita', penned by the producer Bhavabhuti. Atreyi's unique teacher was Valmiki, who had as of late gotten to be submerged in composing the Ramayana, being solidly persuaded that he was the Adi Kavi (first artist). An “excursion” toward the south implied a challenging stroll through several sections of forested area, overcoming consistent dangers from louters, puzzling diseases, and wild creatures. Then again, this was an outing that Atreyi was extremely ready to make, wanting to gain more from southern Vedanta intellectuals like Agastya.

In spite of the fact that Bhavabhuti's story is anecdotal, plays were expected for the masses. The way that an eighth century playwright nonchalantly presents female characters who go a long way from home, alone, looking for training, suggesting that groups of onlookers amid his time would not be excessively amazed or exasperated by such episodes. In another play of his, the 'Malatimadhava', a Buddhist sister, Kamandaki, is close companion with the fathers of the male and the female central characters, on the grounds that the three had been colleges in their childhood. In the event that young ladies needed to be admitted to gurukulas , there was nothing preventing them from doing as such.

Prior, the 'Upanishads' (expounded on the seventh century BC) contain records of exceptionally learned women. Nobody in insightful circles appears to have experienced any difficulty tolerating Gargi, a famous lady logician, as one of them. The 'Brihadaranyaka Upanishad' contains a recorded record of Gargi's verbal confrontation with the main researcher of the age, Yajnyavalkya. The verbal confrontation was organized by King Janaka of Mithila . In the court of Janaka, Gargi was honored as one of the Navaratnas (nine jewels).

She asked Yajnyavalkya such powerful questions that inevitably he was not able to reply, and needed to turn to advising her that her head may tumble off if she continued scrutinizing the incomprehensible. This, on the other hand, appeared to be a significant menace among Upanishadic debaters; men who could not help contradicting other men would use it often. Along these lines, in opposition to initial introductions, there was nothing sexist about Yajnyavalkya's response. The way that Gargi, an unmarried lady, was welcome to gatherings everywhere through the nation without stirring remark, appears to indicate a liberal scholarly air.

Looking back even earlier, the originators of the Rig Vedic songs incorporated various women. Every psalm in the Rig Veda is credited to a specific creator, and the genealogy of the creator is said. More than 20 ladies number among the creators credited with the arrangement of these songs.

The 'Therigatha', written in 600 BC, is the most primitive known assortment made exclusively out of women's composition. These verses, composed by primary specialists of Buddhism , were penned by women from a wide cluster of foundations. The authors incorporated a mother whose child had passed on, a previous prostitute, an affluent beneficary who had repudiated her life of delight, and the Buddha's own stepmother. Despite the fact that ladies from imperial families had admittance to casual training in many nations, the Thergatha demonstrated that numerous standard ladies were likewise knowledgeable in antiquated Indian culture.

As opposed to ancient India, the old Greeks and Romans had an alternate state of mind towards female instruction. In spite of the fact that they had superb government-funded schools and exercise rooms for formal instruction, these were open just to young men, dissimilar to the ashramas of old India where young women and lasses could learn along the men. Prominent Greek scholars like Aristotle and Socrates thought ineffectively about the scholarly abilities of ladies. Plato kept up that ladies had no souls, while the Socratic discourse 'The Symposium' presumes that ladies were otherwise for furnishing men with scholarly camaraderie.

In later times, Khana, who is at times supposedly to have turned into a casualty of abusive behavior at home, was a prominent poetess and crystal gazer of close fanciful capacities. In spite of the fact that points of interest of her life are murky, she seems to have lived in southern Bengal, where huge numbers of her works are still family platitudes.

In 1150, Bhaskara II, the most prestigious Indian mathematician of his age, wrote the 'Lilavati' – perhaps the single book for mathematics on the planet which issues were for the most part tended to young ladies. An instance of such an issue is addressing the delightful and dear Lilavati, whose eyes are similar to a fawn's. The author wants to know what the numbers are coming about because of one hundred and thirty five, taken into twelve. The author retorts to this propitious lady if she possesses the gift of multiplication by both whole and parts, or even by subdivision of structure or division of digits, she should let the author know what the reminder is of the item separated by the equal multiplier. This was considered to be the leading math reading material in Indian institutions for the following 700 years.

It is fascinating that as much as sexual orientation segregation goes, antiquated Indian culture appeared to be substantially more libertarian and adjusted than other old social orders, in any event in the field of education. Ideally, this equalization is something that could have maintained and upgraded in present times as well.

Creativity in America and How Italians Can Learn From American Ingenuity

Studying Italian culture, Italian language, and English language have been my favorite past times over the past thirty years. I first visited Italy in June 1982 with students from the University of Georgia's Study Abroad Program led by Dr. Kehoe. I was so fascinated with Italy that I returned another time with that same university…

Studying Italian culture, Italian language, and English language have been my favorite past times over the past thirty years. I first visited Italy in June 1982 with students from the University of Georgia's Study Abroad Program led by Dr. Kehoe. I was so fascinated with Italy that I returned another time with that same university and then with Middlebury College and the University for Foreigners in Perugia. My three children are Italian citizens and I led an Italian Meetup Club in Atlanta for a total of ten years. In thirty-three years, both I and others have noticed some changes that have occurred in life in Italy. Both I and my Italian friends decided that there might be some valuable lessons to be learned from America and from understanding some English. Such lessons might help Italy to arise again to its former position as an example of creative leadership.

I do not wish to insist that all is well in America. Americans certainly have some issues to deal with, issues like the need for a better health insurance system and the need to control guns and armaments. Just the same, tons of Italians are going to America in search of jobs in the healthcare industry and in the creative business industry. Rather than to remain in Italy where Italians say it is difficult to become an entrepreneur, they prefer to risk putting both their knowledge and talents to the test. For many of them, it would be easier to accept the status quo in Italy where there is at least a safety net in case one can not find work.

In the past thirty years since Italy changed its currency to the Euro, everything has become more expensive. Italians complain that their jobs are less secure than they once were and that the pay is relatively lower than it was by comparison to the 1980s. Many Italians over sixty who had to retire earlier than expected were left without retirement and are now waiting for their payments to be approved. Teachers often earn less than 1000 Euros per month, less than a waiter, and the average citizen gets by on 1500 Euros per month as of December 2015. None one is already a home owner, he or she will have trouble making ends meet on such a low salary. Furthermore, most young people are unemployed and they at least consider what it might be like to work abroad in order to test their abilities regardless of any difficulties they might face.

There are plenty of talented people who could open their own schools in Italy or sell their own home crafts from out of their homes. Unfortunately, some unsympathetic political leaders – even some mafiosi with power – have endorsed laws that make it impossible for Italians to sell their own designs, their art, even their craft projects, and other services from their very own homes! Instead, Italian citizens have to pay for a very expensive “Partita IVA” in order to become independent artists, salespeople and entrepreneurs! Such laws do not favor the development of Italian creativity!

Whereas, an American artist can sell a painting or sculpture from the comfort of his home, an Italian artist can not do the same without he decides to work “in black” or pay a huge tax that makes being creative not worth the money! To work in black or “in nero” is to do so without declaring one's earnings. Although many people do this in Italy, most agree it is better to be a regular business owner who can be proud of his business.

Americans can sell their craft-products from their own homes. They can even set up tutoring services at home for very small fees. There is no limit to what Americans can invent that they find them unemployed or should they create art for sheer pleasure. The United States stimulates both entrepreneurship and creativity. It gives young people a chance to have a dream for the future regardless of where they were born. The Italian government only stimulates the dreams of the rich and possibly the dreams of those who inherit a lot of property. It is so much more difficult for a poor man or a poor woman to dream big dreams in Italy where there is a stronger social class system!

Furthermore, many Italians who understand English agree that the American media is fascinating in terms of providing a wide variety of information. One can hear a wider range of news shows in the States. There are also more American movies and music videos than in most of the world so that people are learning American language through the media. Americans have taken it upon themselves to create interesting schools online as well as free tutorials in American English. Although I love the poetic, Italian language, the information that is available to me in Italian is much more limited than what I can find in English, especially when it comes to medical and psychological research. This is why so many Italians that I have met are now learning American English and going to the States to do both research, internships, and fellowships.

I miss great Italian writers like Pier Paolo Pasolini and Alberto Moravia. Movie directors like Fellini stimulated my creative mind! Italy was once known for its creativity that inspired other minds across the globe! Certainly, Italy influenced American thought so I am thankful for those Italian studies that I did with much enthusiasm in the 1980s.

Italian schools are beginning to invite native speakers of English to practice the language with children. Their textbooks have now begin to introduce technical English words, and there is a new interest in learning American English and culture so that young people will have more options. Hopefully, the situation (near a depression) in Italy will get better once there will be more global communication. Italy is undetiously a living museum where one can see great art, but some Italians told me that Italy has to stop living on its “laurels” of the past (the times of the Renaissance) and the country must now focus on stimulating creativity in its citizens who will be fortunate when and if they will be capable of reinventing the Italian government so that everyone has the equal chance to succeed. America is not a perfect country, but many Italians would like to bring the best aspects of America to the Italy just as Italian Americans of previous generations treated Italian culture to the States.

A Verbal Case Against the American Revolution

A medium height gentleman approaches and stands before a select group of men who are advocating a revolution from the British crown and campaigning for independence of the colonies here in the new world. The man appears to be a calm sort of individual who continuously glances down to the floor as he addresses the…

A medium height gentleman approaches and stands before a select group of men who are advocating a revolution from the British crown and campaigning for independence of the colonies here in the new world. The man appears to be a calm sort of individual who continuously glances down to the floor as he addresses the assembly. Holding his cuffed hands in front of him he slowly begins to speak.

I have recently read the pamphlet written by James Chalmers entitled “Plain truth.” This was written in response to Mr. Thomas Paine's contribution is known as “Common Sense.” I would like to take this time to offer my support to Mr. Chalmers and propose my own views on the topic.

Gentlemen, first off thank you for this opportunity to address the assembly and I am particularly appreciative that my opinion on the topic is so greatly valued. I will make this brief as possible since I have some chores to accomplish and fields to plow. I am but a humble farmer with a few acres of land to my name, a healthy cow that provides milk for my family, a goat and a small flock of chickens. My monthly stipend from my long hours of work each week is barely enough to feed my family but I try very hard to be a productive member of my village.

Allow me if I may to remind you that as a colonist we actually enjoyed more freedom and rights along with perpetuating a better life for our families than most of our friends and family members how still remain in Britain. Being a farmer, I have become very good with figures and mathematical calculations so please bare with me. Assuming that we go to war and break away from Great Britain I foresee a major bloodbath taking place. We will likely experience thousands of useless deaths and see many of our brothers flee our colonies to escape British percussion. These issues are causing me to be very disturbed and unduly concerned as I think about the events that may take place if we should not be successful. Perhaps we would be better off remaining under British rule where we have a measure of protection being offered by the army and the navel forces. The British navy I need not remind you presents one of the strongest naval impacts at this time. Least we forget Napoleon stands near our right arm, next to our villages and our cities.

We as small colonies with a mere 50 percent of our people supporting this cause would have little opportunities to defeat such an armada as the British may imposes upon us. Most of the people here in the thirteen colonies derived their roots from the British Islands and contradictory to popular opinion we do enjoy a measure of support within the parliament, just ask Mr. Benjamin Franklin about that matter. The British, I would remind you view the southern colonies as an ally against this challenged treason which you gentleman are preparing to commit. The word spreading around the colonies is that the South is not only dependent upon the England's support but that the crown views the South as a counter deterrent to our “dangerous” Northern colonies. As a Farmer and business man, I need not remind you that Britain is our foremost trading partner and that it was the British who saved us from the French in the Seven Year War.

In concluding my opinionated speech I would suggest that we keep the strength of the British Empire on our side and give them the respect necessary from loyal subjects.

Copyright @ 2015

What Made Native American Peoples Vulnerable to Conquest by European Adventurers?

What made Native American peoples vulnerable to a contract by European adventurers? There were several hits which made the Native American's vulnerable to a request by European adventurers. First, the people themselves were ill equipped to deal with the European invaders. Their numbers were quickly reduced as a result of famine, forced labor, epidemics involving…

What made Native American peoples vulnerable to a contract by European adventurers?

There were several hits which made the Native American's vulnerable to a request by European adventurers. First, the people themselves were ill equipped to deal with the European invaders. Their numbers were quickly reduced as a result of famine, forced labor, epidemics involving contact with European diseases and wars.

They were unaccustomed to the economic, political and military aspects associated with the Europeans. They lack the organization and political unity to resist the conquering people. The various tribes were frequently in conflict with one and other as they went about their daily lives competing with each other for land and food. As an example over the years the Aztecs accumulated many enemies especially within their own tribe. This conflict directed from competition for territorial rights, acquisition of wealth and the practice of using their captive enemies as religious sacrifications. Cortés exploited this trait by forming alliances with the opposing tribes. In contrast to the Aztecs lack of unity the Spanish explorers were a highly unified society.

The Native Americans possessed the necessary skills to work with copper but failed to develop those needed to smelt iron because they lacked sufficient technology to wage war upon the invaders. When the Europeans arrived in the New World they were welcomed by the Native Americans. The Indians considered their visitors as wonderful warriors with their dress, beards, and their ships but more so for the technology they bought with them. The native population was amazed at this technology such as their steel knives and swords, the arquebus which is a sort of muzzle loader, the cannon, copper and brass kettles, mirrors, hawk bells and earrings which were used as trading goods, along with other items which were unusual to their way of life. This was rightfully so since the natives lacked the ability to create these amazingventions used by the Europeans. Unfortunately the European visitors used their weapons of war to inflate great amounts of damage to the natives.

It did not take long before serious problems began to develop. Upon the arrival of the Europeans there were 7 million Native Americans in North America. Most lived in hunter-gather or agricultural types of communities. The largest problem encountered by the Native Americans was their lack of immunity towards European diseases. This lack of immunity in these communities towards the European diseases took their toll among the Indian tribes. Smallpox was a common threat frequently contracted by the Indians from the European people.

The Native Americans soon began to dislike the Europeans and their beliefs. They often viewed the white man as despicable and stingy with their wealth. This was something that the Indians had not previously encountered. In their social order things were freely shared. The explorers were deemed to be insatiable in their desire for furs and hides. They particularly disliked the European's intolerance for their religious beliefs, eating habits, sexual and marital arrangements and other aspects of their customs.

The Native Americans were used to being in tune with the spirit of nature but to the Europeans nature was an obstacle in their path. They viewed the gifts of nature as an endless supply of resources such as the forest having an abundance of timber, a beaver colony possessing unlimited pelts and the buffalo with many robes. To the explorers even the Native American's were deemed a resource ripe for religious conversion or as a means of free labor.

Copyright @ 2015

Being Watched From Guard Towers

Although it is a well-known fact that there have been and are some innocent people serving time in prisons of the world, most who are incarcerated are guilty of some crime. When people maintain their innocence, even though they may have been found guilty by a jury of their peers, there is a slight chance…

Although it is a well-known fact that there have been and are some innocent people serving time in prisons of the world, most who are incarcerated are guilty of some crime. When people maintain their innocence, even though they may have been found guilty by a jury of their peers, there is a slight chance that they are innocent. Some people have been exonerated after years of serving time in princes through the nation. They are usually financially compensated for their unjust incarceration. Yet they have actually lost years of their lives.

During World War II after President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066, tens of thousands of innocent people were forced to be imprisoned within barbed wire enclosures at camps, which had been constructed in remote and desolate areas of the country. That order allowed the military commander to remove persons from certain locations. They lived in the camps where they lost their freedom. They were watched over by armed guards in towers who watched the prisoners with the guns pointed inward.

The United States was at war with Japan. The order could have been used with others, but it was only enacted against people who were of Japanese heritage. The Western Defense Command, which took place in most of the states of California, Oregon, and Washington, was where the vast majority of the population of Japanese ethnicity lived. It was used to force them from their homes and lock them up in what have come to be known as “American concentration camps.” Two thirds of those incarcerated and treated in this unfair manner were citizens of the United States of America. They had been born in this country, but the Constitution and the government did not protect them. They faced discrimination and prejudice, which caused them to be treated in this manner.

After the war had ended, the people were sent out to resume their prior lives as free citizens. Most had no money and now to go. Some returned to their homes, which may have been cared for by caring neighbors in their absence, but most found that any property or belongings they had left or stored were gone. They tried to rebuild their lives after the lost years of incarceration. It was a difficult task.

Although World War II ended seventy years ago, the story of what happened to Japanese Americans during that period of time is still not well-known among much of the population. The incarceration is covered slightly in some American history classes in high schools, but many people are unaware that the episode even happened. Indeed, some hateful people insist that the mass incarceration did not occur.

It is a painful memory in the lives of Japanese American people who lived through the experience. Government leaders have repeatedly tried to erase such racism and discrimination, which caused it to happen. Yet some of those problems still exist in the world today. Most Japanese Americans would like to keep the history alive and let people know of their experiences of World War II in order to prevent such mistreatment from happening to any other people.

Anima Woman in Henrik Ibsen’s A Doll’s House

The play A Doll's House labeled Norwegian Henrik Ibsen as the perpetrator of scandal in 1879, when the play was staged. In the debate over women's rights that was stirring worldwide, Ibsen confronted a storm of protests, especially from the patriarchal church, against a woman leaving her husband at the conclusion of the play. With…

The play A Doll's House labeled Norwegian Henrik Ibsen as the perpetrator of scandal in 1879, when the play was staged. In the debate over women's rights that was stirring worldwide, Ibsen confronted a storm of protests, especially from the patriarchal church, against a woman leaving her husband at the conclusion of the play. With no prior knowledge of Jung's theories of the anima and animus, Ibsen created a protagonist who begins as an anima woman trying to enact her husband husband Torvald's ideal woman but who, in the end, rejects this persona and leaves him in search of self-realization .

Father-Child

In Act I, Nora Helmer surreptitiously eats macaroons and must lie about it for fear of her husband Torvald's repressive for eating sweets. Hearing her return from shopping, he calls out, “Is that my little lark twittering out there? … Is it my little squirrel bustling about? … Was my little spendthrift been wasting money again?” Three short pages into the script, the reader quickly deduces the nature of the relationship between Nora and Torvald. There is a sweet outer layer to the darker measure of Nora that lies only slightly under the surface of his words. It is a father-child arrangement based on Torvald's need for control over his wife and his own image, both of which are illusory, creating the tension of uncertainty about Nora's choices.

Nora as Loyal Ariadne

An old friend from school days, Mrs. Christine Linde, comes to visit Nora. Their conversation allows them to fill in the ten-year gap of news, including Nora's need to take in needlework to make ends meet and Torvald's exhaustion and illness that required a period of recuperation in Italy, a tremendous expense that Nora explains came from her papa . Torvald recovered and returned to Norway where he has just received a promotion in the bank and the promise of a secure future for his family. This situation, too, is an illusion, for although Torvald has reclaimed, his debt is not to her papa, who has since died, but to his wife who secretly borrowed the large sum from a moneylender of questionable repute to pay for the expenses of his recuperation.

The Tangle Web

By Act II the characters' lives have intertwined. Nora offers to help the widowed Mrs. Linde by telling her husband of her friend's accounting skills, which convinces Torvald to give her a bank position recently became available with the termination of Nils Krogstad, the secret moneyler of Nora Helmer. The deception indeed has led to a tangled web, but it will be the necessary test of the anima for Nora and Torvald. When Krogstad is fired, he will make public the news of the scandalous loan, an announcement that Torvald's ego will not survive. Krogstad indeed sends Torvald the note calling in the balance of the loan and the letter sits untouched in the box. While Nora and Torvald are upstairs at a holiday celebration, Christine and Krogstad meet, revealing their former love affair. Christine's good fortune leads her to offer Krogstad the security of marriage, and he accepts her offer, at the same time rescinding the loan to Nora.

Torvald's Control

In Act III Torvald and Nora are alone. He calls her his “fascinating, charming little darling … all the beauty that is mine, all my very own … more captivating than ever … I have wanted to be with you, my darling wife. you might be threatened by some great danger, so that I might risk my life's blood, and everything, for your sake. ” Once he has read the letter revealing Nora's loan dilemma, his words quickly change to “miserable creature, hypocrite, liar, criminal, the unutterable ugliness of it, no religion, no morality, no sense of duty … Now you have destroyed my happiness … ruined my future..I must sink to such miserable depths because of a thoughtless woman! ” Torvald's anima calls upon all the images he knows as woman: Aphrodite the beautiful, Ariadne the loyal, Persephone the obliging, Pygmalion's Galatea, the woman he created. She is every woman in his unconscious that will allow him to mold and control her.

A Clear Anima Projection

After his tirade of accusation, he calmly says to Nora, “It must appear as if everything between us were as before … You will still remain in my house … but I will not allow you to bring up the children; dare not trust them to you … From this moment happiness is not the question; all that concerns us is to save the remains, the fragments, the appearance- “Suddenly the door bell rings; a letter for Nora has arrived, which Torvaldists on reading first. It is news from Krogstad who has returned her bond, saving Nora and Torvald from embarrassment. In no time Torvald forgives his wife for her ability to “understand how to act on your own responsibly” and insist that she leans on him who will advise and direct her in her womanly helplessness. He has broad wings to shelter his “frittened little singing-bird” and will protect her “like a hunted dove.” While Nora is getting dressed to leave him, although unknown to him, he tells her he has given her a new life-Galatea-and she has become both archetypal wife and child to him. “So you shall be for me after this, my little scarred, helpless darling.”

Casting Off the Anima

Nora, in each moment that passes, quietly looks inward, examining the undiscovered new woman inside her and casting off the animate projection that she had abided for eight years in her marriage. With her cold, set face, she makes Torvald sit down while she tells him for the first time that they have never had a serious conversation as husband and wife. She is weary of being her papa's and now her husband's doll-child who must have the same opinions as and perform tricks for the men in her life. Their marriage and home have been nothing but a doll's house, and having been trained to be manipulated according to Torvald's desires, she is not fit to be a mother either. She must stand alone and try to educate herself, for the understanding of the self is as sacred a duty as wife and mother. Torvald challenges Nora's expectation that he could possibly sacrifice his honor for her – even while he fantasizes the shedding of his lifeblood for her – by telling her no man would do that. Her insightful response is, “It is a thing hundreds of thousands of women have done.” The door closes behind her and she is gone. The play has ended with Torvald confused and befuddled. Nora has killed Torvald's symbolic mistress, the animate projection that enslaved her, and now she is free to discover the person she is and can become.

The Cycle of the Anima

Perpetual in its motion, the projection of the anima, the images a man unconsciously collections of the ideal woman, is reinforced by the woman who agrees to mirror those behaviors and mold herself accordingly to fit the projection. In each story the female protagonist strives to conform to her husband's ideal at the time, and she slowly begins to think the way he does. His way becomes her way; His preferences become hers. In two other works of anima women, Katherine Anne Porter's short story “Maria Concepcion” and Fitzgerald's novel The Great Gatsby , the marriages remain intact only because the wives assent to relinquishing themselves. In Ibsen's play The Doll's House , Nora must sacrifice her old life to be reborn as an authentic woman.

Please see the following works:

Jung, CG The Basic Writings of CG Jung . Trans. FR.FC Hull. Ed. Violet S. de Laszlo. Bollingen Series. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1990.

Ibsen, Henrik. A Doll's House . Girard, Kansas: Haldeman-Julius Company,

Translation That Works

Most people, who know two languages ​​can translate well but in fact, do not. Why is that? What causes this gap between knowledge and performance? Nearly all translators drift into their work by chance. After working in another field, individuals who know two languages ​​are called upon to make their work intelligible to speakers of…

Most people, who know two languages ​​can translate well but in fact, do not. Why is that? What causes this gap between knowledge and performance?

Nearly all translators drift into their work by chance. After working in another field, individuals who know two languages ​​are called upon to make their work intelligible to speakers of other languages. They do it as part of their other job. The only training most translators get is on the job experience.

Translation consists of replacing a written message in one language (source language) with the same message in another language (target language). The problem begins with a faulty assumption that accurate word meaning is the task. Accuracy is not enough. The translator must have a “feel” for the target language. He or she should be fluent in it.

Fluency requires more than profitability. One needs to be familiar with the idiomatic level of the language, with its specific ways of conveying meaning. It is not an inborn quality. You can acquire it through wide listening and reading. The translator should regularly read and view popular media (newspapers, magazines, radio and television). He or she should also read popular literature. This gives the translator access to how the language conveys meaning in everyday life. Lacking fluency, the translator produces an acceptable but stilted translation.

Another faulty assumption is that translating the consists of a one-step process with the aid of a dictionary. Woefully incomplete! In 1540, the French Humanist, Etienne Dolet, proposed five principles in How to Translate Well from One Language into Another:

1. The translator should understand the meaning of the original and clarify obscurities.
2. The translator should possess a perfect knowledge of both the original language and the target language.
3. The translator should avoid word-for-word renderings.
4. The translator should use forms of speech in common use.
5. The translator should choose and order words to produce the correct tone. (Bassnett-McGuire, Translation Studies, 1980, p. 54)

You might be thinking: Why do I need a human translator? I'll just use machine translation available free on the Internet. Of course, you could. But it will not work well. You'll get a mongrel word-for-word translation. Until machine translation gets perfected, plan on using human translators. In the days of telegrams, a woman visiting London cabled her husband about buying an expensive fur: “Found a wonderful fur, should I buy it?” He cabled back: “No price too high.” But the telegraph operator forgot to add a comma as follows: No, price too high. “Messages are more than words. a translator should render the text sense for sense and not word for word.

I updated Dolet's principles to 5 steps. You can do some steps mentally. You may combine others. But you can not skip any without harm the result. These steps are:

1. Determine the purpose of the text (Expressive, Descriptive or Persuasive).
2. Clarify the text in the original language. Supply definitions, rewrite jargon, and spell acronyms.
3. Produce a rough but complete translation in the target language. The meaning should all be there even if the expression of it is awkward.
4. Produce an idiomatic translation in the target language. It should feel as if it was composed in the target language.
5. Test the effectiveness of the translation on speakers of the target language. Is it clear? Do they understand it?

You can translate well if you follow 5 steps in sequence. You must determine the purpose of the text. You should clarify the text in the original language. Then you should produce a rough translation in the target language. After that, you should produce an idiomatic version in the target language. Finally, you should test the effectiveness of the translation on speakers of the target language. In the end, the skill to translate well resolves itself in your ability to write well in the target language.

Hall of Shame

The Hall of Shame It is simply inconceivable that the world at large, the so called political leaders with a few exceptions remains so oblivious and in high gear demagoguery when in face of sheer misery when we witness the plan of the millions of innocent man, women and children refugees fleeing the conflict areas…

The Hall of Shame

It is simply inconceivable that the world at large, the so called political leaders with a few exceptions remains so oblivious and in high gear demagoguery when in face of sheer misery when we witness the plan of the millions of innocent man, women and children refugees fleeing the conflict areas in search of a safe place to live.

Let's all not forget the main culprits of all these conflicts are precisely the same ones doing the least and trying to look away. As stated by most experts the invasions of Iraq, Afghanistan and laTelly Libya are the primary reasons behind these present conflicts in the Middle East and North Africa.

The US has so far since the start of the Syrian conflict accepted, believe it or not, 1,600 refugees from the present ongoing 4,000,000 people trying to escape the war zones. Some nations like Lebanon have accepted 1,000,000, a quarter of their population, 40,000 in Finland and 800,000 accepted by Germany only this year.

After a strong pressure from the world community the US finally announced this week that they would consider accepting 10,000 … next year. This is less than the daily flow of refugees trying to cross into Hungary. Have they no SHAME? The Americans should at least not speak out in public, not to offend individuals with the minimum sense of decency and humanity. This microscopic and appropriate gesture can only be compared to the historical American sense of respect to humanitarian values.

This is all déjà vu, as when Jews were being massacred, burned with many other innocent victims in Europe the US did nothing for too many years clearly knowingly the magnitude of the horrors and dire consequences. Including the shameful refusal to accept ships filled with women and children fleeing the Nazis. It took many years for the US to act and do the decent thing while millions were massed as they viewed this tragedy in sheer silence. This was also repeated in Rwanda and now we regretably witness the same demeanor from the so called Leader of the Free World and the Richest Nation in the Planet.

When Obama spoke about a red line in Syria and then failed to act he signaled another green light to the Law of the Jungle, world disorder and oppression where all that matters is really money. It demonstrated the complete absence of any leadership or sense of solidity for mankind. At the same time we witness the parade in Washington and London of other brutal corrupt leaders being treated as royalty, with state visits as they have succumbed to the economic interests of Wall Street.

This display of Western Civilization cruelty and hypocrisy was ever so much highlighted when the three year old boy showed up dead in the coast of Turkey after Canada returned the earlier application from the family to asylum. A tragedy with the death of the mother and her two young children drown at sea.

Neverheless is still admirable the immediate refusal from the father to the cynical offer post mortem after his unimaginable loss to immigrate to Canada. A nation with such a vast territory and its low population showed one absolute disregard to human life. Canada is another paradigm of an irrelevant nation state without any moral and humanitarian principles occupying all that land for not much good use. Can you imagine how many people they could offer a safe refuge?

This is indeed a display of the worst of human kind when the richest nations show absolute no sense of human solidarity only keen to act when it serves their own self interest.

The US, the UK and Canada now lead the nations in the Hall of Shame. Not to forget the irrelevant UN and its mindless president Banki Moon which has shown the true face of this inconsequential body to ever so much act as a rubber stamp to the interests of the powerful. And last but not the least the Vatican that offered to house two refugee families, and I will repeat two families, this is not a typo mistake, despite all its colossal wealth and properties all across the globe.

O. Niemeyer, the architect who designed the UN building in New York and a true humanitarian lived to be 100 years was once asked what was the worse side of the human species and he replied; The indifference of the rich The privileged against the poor, the defenseless, the underprivileged.

This is not a refugee crisis, this is a WORLD crisis.

This is not a Refugee problem, this is our problem

People with a consciousness in the world, UNITE

An Attempt to Survive the Holocaust Through Detachment

In order for anyone to attempt to survive the realities of the Holocaust concentration camps, there must be a change in one's mindset. For many, it was imperative that they detach themselves mentally from the situation that they were in. This dismissal was imperative by not only the prisoners of the camp but by the…

In order for anyone to attempt to survive the realities of the Holocaust concentration camps, there must be a change in one's mindset. For many, it was imperative that they detach themselves mentally from the situation that they were in. This dismissal was imperative by not only the prisoners of the camp but by the doctors and the soldiers as well. Dr. Robert Jay Lifton (2000) discusses the importance of this survival instinct in his book, The Nazi Doctors: Medicalized Killing and the Psychology of Genocide. He coins his term of detachment as “psychic numbing” – “an interruption in psychic action – in the continuous creation and re-creation of images and forms that constituates the symbolizing or 'formative process' characteristic of human mental life” (p. 442 ). Lifton argues that in order for the doctors and soldiers to commit the heinous crimes that they did, they had to undergo “psychic numbing” in order to achieve the “final solution” that the führer, Adolf Hitler, had set forth.

Earnst B., one of the doctors interviewed for Dr. Lifton's book states, “One could react like a normal human being in Auschwitz only for the first few hours” (p.443). Dr. Lifton argues that the doctor is describing, once a person entered through the gates of a concentration camp, Auschwitz in particular, there began the disassociation, or “psychic numbing” from the horrors that were taking place. The numbing began long before concentration camps were made; it began during the propaganda that was presented by the Nazis. This propaganda instilled in the soldiers that the “undesirables” – namely Jews – were not people at all. This made soldiers numb to the victims because “those victims never exhausted” (p. 443). The logic would seem to follow, according to the Nazis, that if a person is not viewed as a person then killing them does not violate any moral standards – then, allowing them to continue their “duties” without feeling guilty.

It has been argued that one of the more daunting tasks that doctors and soldiers had to do at the camps was the selection process, where they would select the people that were going straight to the gas chambers, the people who were going to be tested on , and the people that were going to work at the camp. Lifton argues that after a person's first or second selection process, one had “made a pledge to stay numbered, which meant to live within the restricted feelings of the Auschwitz self” (p. 443). Essentially, upon entering a concentration camp, personnel were not allowed to feel, they were only allowed to do their job. It was customary for selection personnel to drink before the selection process began. Drinking together in a group setting allowed for the men who had been at the camp for an extended period of time to share with the newcomers the hatred of the “undesirables” that creating a common enemy and allowing them to bond over the events that were coming to pass. The strength of this bond further helped the men detach themselves from the realities of what they were going to do – choosing life or death of a complete stranger. Lifton states that through this numb process, “he no longer experienced them as creatures who affected him – that is, as human beings” (p. 444). The disassociation from the realities of the death camp further enabled these soldiers and doctors to commit terrible crimes against humanity and allow most of them to be able to live with the horrors they had committed.

Additionally, Dr. Lifton argues that in order for the Nazi doctors to further detach themselves even more, they had to create a separate reality of the concentration camp. He gives an example of this feeling as, “Anything I do on planet Auschwitz does not count on planet Earth” (p. 447). He is suggesting that what was being done at concentration camps was acceptable (to the Nazis) because they had created a separate reality, which enabled them to create a new set of norms and rules that were acceptable there because they were different from the rules and norms of most other countries in the world. This new mind enabled the Nazis to reject the notion that what they were doing was amoral, because they had established their own “rules” of what morality was in the concentration camps – annihilation of “undesirables” was the “right thing to do” on “planet Auschwitz.”

Furthermore, Lifton argues that the “diffusion of responsibility” (p. 444) played a key part in the numbing process. There are three different attributes of this diffusion of responsibility; “military order, designated role, and desirable attitude” (p. 444). The “military order” refers to the claim that one was simply following orders, which one assumes since he or she was simply following orders; it exonerates him or her from the questionable action that was committed. The “designated role” refers to the expectations set forth by leaders for someone to do their job. Lifton gives the example, “I am expected to select strong prisoners for work and weaker ones for 'special treatment'” (p. 444). It is important to make the distinction between the “military order” and “designated role” by assignment to do a job and the expectation of how the job is to be done. Lastly, the “desirable attributions” refers to the attitude of the job that the individual is told to do and expected to do to the best of his or her her ability. For example, not only is one provided to choose who lives or who dies, it is expected that the selector maintains discipline and stern in the selection process – a process where emotions are not acceptable. In order for the selectors to perform their job properly, all three of these attributes must be upheld. For these attributes to be upheld, it is plausible that only through disassociating oneself from the “victims,” ​​a person is able to truly perform the duties of his or her job.

Dr. Lifton argues that for the Nazis to continue with the horrors that they were committing, they had to exercise total control over not only of themselves, but of the prisoners as well. This type of control took many forms, but a sense of omnipotence was evident throughout many of the Nazi doctor's mindset and demeanor. Lifton argues that since the Nazi doctors have such control over life and death, they began to develop a type of a “god-complex,” which included a sense of complete power and control. Dr. Lifton states, “While the omnipotence was supposed to be limited by policies from above … in actuality the mood or whim of the SS doctor could determine the prisoners' fate” (p. 448). Lifton is proposing the notification that while the higher-in-command SS and Nazis thought they were in control over which prisoners live and which die; in actuality, it was the doctors who made that choice – giving them the power, not the people who were above them in command. Moreover, Lifton points out that the Nazi doctor's power was shown through the “manipulative use of the bodies of prisoners” (p. 448). Not only were Nazi doctors responsible for the selections, they were also liable for the countless tests they would preform on any given prisoner that they wanted. Yet again, exercising their control over the camps far more than the soldiers could ever hope to do.

In continuaion, Dr. Lifton argues that the Nazis had to “surrender to the environment” meaning that they were not allowed to feel anything which saved them a “psychological advantage” over the prisoners. For example, he proposes, “The Auschwitz self could feel: I am not responsible for selections.” I am not responsible for phenol injections. “I am a victim of the environment no less than the inmates” (p. 450). Given the environment that they were in, they felt a need to acclimate to it, so allowing them, in their own minds, to kill and commit the heinous crimes that they did. Dr. Lifton proposes that once a Nazi accepts the realities of the camp and the environment that they are in, they allow them to conform to the norms of the environment; forgetting the morals that they possibly held long before their arrival to the camp.

He describes the concentration camp's expectations were and ratione was, “Mass murder is the norm, so it is acceptable to select and thenby save a few people, or to experiment on prisoners and main or kill a few here and there since they are in any case destined for death “(p. 450). Here, it can be seen that not only did the Nazis conform to a very different way of life; they also rationalized why they were doing the “right thing” through selections and testing – because in their mindset, they [Jews, gypsies, “undesirables”] were going to die anyway.

Dr. Lifton brilliantly argues the importance of language, in the numb process, which each German individual had to undergo and acclimate to in order to perform the tasks that were expected of him or her. He states, “But at the same time the language used brave Nazi doctors a disciscession in which killing was no longer killing; and need not be experienced or even perceived, as killing” (p. 445). The words that were used in concentration camps were evoked a “military-medical behavior” such as; “'ramp duty … possible solutions, evacuation, and resettlement'” (p.445). Dr. Lifton even points out the word “selection” implies sorting the healthy from the sick – a type of Darwinian “natural selection,” which points out has nothing to do with killing. Transforming their language in order to disassociate what was really being done to the prisoners allowed them to change their frame of thinking; so allowing them to kill without thinking they are really killing. Moreover, Dr. Lifton argues that one of the greatest ways doctors were able to function in the medicalized killing and testing on prisoners was through their ways of making everything very technical. For example, Dr. Lifton proposes that their [Nazi doctors] sense of “humanity killing killing with technical efficiency” (p.453). As aforementioned, the language of the camps was central to allowing the Nazis to rationalize that what they were doing was okay, since they were essentially changing the language to conform to the norms of the camps; which included the exclusion of any form of emotions. When language is technical, as it was in Auschwitz, it is much “easier” to commit terrible crimes, because they have rationalized themselves to think that it is purely a job – not a crime against humanity.

Analysis

It was almost necessary for the Nazis to undergo a break with their previously known reality in order to perform the “duties” that was required of them. In order for this break to happen, there had to be a disassociation from the prisoners. Dr. Robert Lifton argues that this break with reality and the beginnings of the disassociation began long before many of the Nazis went to the camps. This detachment from relating “undesirables,” sometimes Jews, began during the propaganda set forth by the führer, Adolf Hitler, and his aim to enact a “final solution” and bring the Germans back to their “rightful” place in the world.

To begin, Christopher R. Browning (2011) writes in his article, “Ordinary Men” about a police commander of the Reserve Police Battalion 101, Major Wilhelm Trapp, who commanded his battle to round up Jews to take to a concentration camp. When discussing the assignment that they were given he began to talk about how the “Jews had instigated the American Boycott that had damaged Germany” (Niewyk, p. 85). This anti-Semitic attitude was abundant in Germany as one Nazi doctor states in Dr. Lifton's (2000) book, “You could always say that Jews were guilty … arch enemies of Germany … the step to their annihilation is only a millimeter long” (pp. 438-439). Since this disassociation had already begun long before the annihilation of the Jews, it would not be nearly as difficult to “convince” these policemen that what they were told to do was indeed the right thing. In Browning's article, he discusses Stanley Milgram's classic experiment and applications the findings to the notion of socialization in terms of an “evolutionary bias [that] favors the survival of people who can adapt to hierarchical situations and organized social activity” (p. 91) . Browning suggests that we have an internalized inclining to obey, and specifically obey authority. This makes it much easier to be socialized into believing what the “authority” wants us to believe – even as much as Browning suggests making it a “moral imperative” (p. 91). Furthermore, he discusses the notion of a “agentic state” where the individual becomes a tool of another person's will; therefore, no longer feeling responsible for their own actions, as they were just doing what they were told. Lifton argues that this type of obedience to authority is a type of “numbing” in and of itself. Since the Nazis thought that they were following orders and doing as they were expected to do, they had disassociated themselves from the situation; thus, psychologically allowing themselves to commit the terrible crimes they had done.

In a very different perspective, victims of the Holocaust also had to adapt to a sense of detachment in order to survive. In Zoë Vania Waxman's (2011), “Women and the Holocaust,” she discusses the importance of disassociation between a mother and her children as a way to survive the terrors that awaited them. Waxman states that at Auschwitz-Birkenau, women who would not leave their children (under fourteen years of age) were sent to the gas chambers with them. This forced mothers to make a “choiceless choice,” whether to leave their children to potentially die alone or to be a “dutiful mother” and follow her children to both of their deaths (Niewyk, 2011, p. 135). If a woman chose to be separated from her children then there must be a certain level or detachment from her children in order to make an effort to survive. Waxman gives the example of a woman who denies the child running behind her, crying for her, is indeed her child. When a Nazi officer tells the woman to take her child, the woman tells him over and over that the child is not hers in order to hope for survival.

Another example of this type of detachment is found in Tadeusz Borowski's article, “This Way for the Gas, Ladies and Gentlemen.” In Borowski's article, there are two men who are charged with unloading people from the cattle cars and deceiving the prisoners as they make their way to the gas chambers, knowing that once they are dead it is their job to remove them from the chambers and go through all of their beloveds in search of their clothes, food and valuables. While many on the outside may look at this story and ask how he could possibly do such things, deceiving and becoming an accomplice to the heinous crimes, it must be understood that for him, there was no choice. It was either do his job or go to the gas chambers along with all of the other prisoners. In order for him to make an attempt to live with himself, the author had to learn how to detach himself from what he was doing. Part of his assessment is a sense of anger towards the prisoners that were being sent to the gas chambers. He was angry with them for making him do the job that keeps him alive and blamed them for the disgust that he felt of himself. In order for him to continue with the job that was keeping him alive, he had to make the prisoners a type of enemy so that he would not be emotionally distracted sending them to their deaths; thus, able to perform the job that he was given that ensured his survival, if only for the time being.

This is a prime example of the kind of detachment that one had to undergo in order to hope for any type of survival in the concentration camps. This type of numbness is central to Dr. Lifton's argument for how the doctors and soldiers were able to make selections from the trains. To them, it was essential that they restricted their feelings towards the matters at hand and simply made the selections that they were expected and supposedly to do. Although it may seem odd to compare Nazi feelings and prison feeling as very similar to each other, both peoples had to psychologically change their mode of thinking – detaching themselves from the realities of the camp in order to hope for survival or to complete their daily duties .

Finally, in Elie Wiesel's (1997) article, “Death against life,” there is still a different type of detachment that occurs during the liberation from the concentration camps. In Wiesel's piece, he describes the liberation of Buchenwald and the emotional disassociation that he felt near the end. He states at the end, “From the depths of the mirror, a corpse gazed back at me.” The look in his eyes, as they stared into mine, has never left me “(Brown, Stephens, Rubin, 1997, p. 339 ). What the author is describing during the liberation was the emotional detachment that he felt once he saw his reflection. The image of his past, as a likely healthy child, and then image of his current appearance is nearly too much for him to comprehend. Once the camp was liberated, he had to emotionally detach himself from what he used to be – in a sense, he had to move on and forget what his appearance was like from near starvation. Although the detection process is evident, it is not necessarily fully fulfilled as it states in the last filed sentence. He appears to feel a need to detach himself from the emotional and physical trauma that he had undergone during the camp, but finds it to be quite difficult to forget the look of his near-to-death eyes, something he had never seen before. This type of separation of one person into seemingly two completely different people is a defined by Dr. Lifton (2000) as “doubling.” Although Lifton uses his term to explain how Nazi doctors were able to both save and kill lives, the same concept could have applied in the situation of Wiesel. For example, Lifton talks about how Nazi doctors turned from a healing self to a killing self through the doubling process. Doubling is seen as almost an evolution to adapt to the current environment in order to survive and thrive. Wiesel doubled when he came from near death at the camp to a survivor of an irrefutable tragedy. It can be argued that doubling allows a person to not only become two different people, for example, but also to evolve from one person to a very different person. This process is one that many survivors had to come to terms with, one way or another, and to find a way to either deal with the emotions that they were faced with after being liberated or to find a way to detach their emissions from the rulers that they had overcome and attempt to move on.

In conclusion, detachment was one of the central coping mechanisms that many had to undergo in order to either attempt to survive the horrors of the concentration camps or to maintain their diligence to their daily duties at the camp. One way or another, the use of disassociation helped many cope with the troubles that they were faced with and allow themselves to do what they had to do to survive and potentially thrive in the concentration camps. Ironically, the form of detachment that many prisoners experienced while at the camps allowed them to survive the horrors that they were faced with, while the same “psychic numbing” (Lifton, 2000) allowed the Nazi doctors and soldiers to commit the crimes against humanity that they did.

References
Brown, JE, Stephens, EC, & Rubin, JE (1997). Images of the Holocaust: a literature anthology (pp. 277-339). Chicago, IL: NTC publishing group.
Lifton, RJ (2000). The Nazi doctors: medical killing and the psychology of genocide (pp. 442-458). Np: Basic books.
Niewyk, DL (2011). The Holocaust (fourth ed., Pp. 60-99). Boston, MA: Wadsworth.