Teaching Methods in Humanities

The teaching methods in humanities, as well as social sciences, emphasize the idea of ​​education being a kind of conversation between generations, and so frequently turns to great works and big ideas for teaching -content in humanities. As far as teaching methods in humanities are concerned, we are going to look at: Perennialism programs approach:…

The teaching methods in humanities, as well as social sciences, emphasize the idea of ​​education being a kind of conversation between generations, and so frequently turns to great works and big ideas for teaching -content in humanities. As far as teaching methods in humanities are concerned, we are going to look at: Perennialism programs approach: these approaches to teaching methods in humanities deals past works on their own terms as if they actually actually help students understand today better.

Past works are not viewed as mere historical artifacts, but as gateways to a deeper understanding of the human condition. History (and, by extension, the humanities in general) there before plays a large role in perennialist curriculums, through social sciences like economics, psychology, and sociology can still be taught. There is a strong liberal arts bent to perennialist programs. The key goals are to develop critical thinking, a strong foundation of core knowledge (or cultural literacy), and persuasion skill through informed debate and intensive practice in essay writing.

PRAGMATISM: Pragmatism, on the other hand, emphasizes making learning relevant to students' present-day experience. Assignments tend to center around projects and tasks rather than argumentative essays; these projects will often have a real-world application or relevance. There might be more of a social justice component to a pragmatic program, though that is not always the case. Subjects like history and philosophy, etc, meanwhile, may play a more predominant role in pragmatic programs. The key goals are to make learning progressive and relevant while teaching students real-life skills and critical thinking.

Perennialists believe that the focus of education should be the ideas that have lasted for centuries. They believe the ideas are as relevant and meaningful today as when they were written. They recommend that students learn from reading and analyzing the works by history finest thinkers and writers. Pragmatic believe that when students study these works and ideas, they will appreciate learning. It also aims to develop students intellectual and moral qualities.

Perennialists classrooms are also centered on teachers in order to accomplish these goals. The teachers are not concerned about the student's interests or experiences. They use tried and true teaching methods and techniques that are believed to be the most beneficial to disciplining student's minds. The perennialists curriculum is universal and is based on their view that all human being possess the same essential nature. They also think it is more important that individuals think deeply, analytically, flexibly, and imaginatively. They emphasize that students should not be information that may soon be outdated or found to be incorrect.

Life at the Workhouse

There were some fascinating goings on at the local workhouse in Merthyr Tydfil, South Wales. It's a place that's always fascinated me as I was actually born there on a Christmas time at the end of 1960. By then, it had become a hospital serving much of the community. In those days, they kept women…

There were some fascinating goings on at the local workhouse in Merthyr Tydfil, South Wales. It's a place that's always fascinated me as I was actually born there on a Christmas time at the end of 1960. By then, it had become a hospital serving much of the community. In those days, they kept women in confinement for a couple of weeks, and so my mother has fond memories of the nurseries dressed in those old-fashioned starch uniforms and navy capes, coming onto the maternity wing as they held lanterns to sing Christmas carols to the new and expectant mums.

Only a hundred years previously, things were very different at the St. Louis. Tydfil's Union Workhouse. Those who were lucky enough to be able to manage without being interned there might have struggled outside of it to make ends meet, but they often feared that dark foreboding place with its high walls and strict territory, so much so they'd rather go without then go within.

A Christmas dinner back then, according to newspaper reports I've scoured, was that it was the best meal of the year when the inmates were treated to a roast beef dinner with plum pudding! The rest of the year though, their meals were very meagre, often consist of a thin watery gruel for breakfast, bread and cheese or a thin soup with very little, poor quality meat the rest of the time.

Inmates were expected to attend daily prayers at the workhouse chapel and the walls of the workhouse were adorned with biblical quotes. They were forced into hard labor as after all it was thought that Idle hands made the devil's work! And as a consequence, women often worked in the laundry, scrubbed floors, worked in the kitchen, etc, while the men bone-crushed, oakum picked or smashed rocks. It was back-breaking work on very poor food rations.

The worst thing for most families who were forced to live at the workhouse, often through no fault of their own, was that they were split up once inside and rarely saw one another afterwards.

The coincidence of being of my being born in the old workhouse itself did not end there, as years later I worked there as a young student nurse and I also attended meetings at the place when I worked for two charitable organizations. Perhaps somehow the stories from the inmates came to me as their vibrations still existed somewhere within the confines of the old building. Sadly, the building has now been demolished and I hope, with the help of my story, people will appreciate what people in my home town and other towns up and down the country had end once they set foot through the door.

Iqbal’s Apocrypha

Sir Muhammad Iqbal (1877-1938), in layman's terms, was a gifted poet whose verses inspired the Indian Muslims, awakened them from bondage and motivated them to strive for liberty. In fact, Iqbal was a very different man from the Freedom Movement leader our history has conjured up with its imaginative understanding of the great thinker's ideas…

Sir Muhammad Iqbal (1877-1938), in layman's terms, was a gifted poet whose verses inspired the Indian Muslims, awakened them from bondage and motivated them to strive for liberty. In fact, Iqbal was a very different man from the Freedom Movement leader our history has conjured up with its imaginative understanding of the great thinker's ideas and beliefs.

Iqbal was a liberal Muslim with a scientific comprehension of old school religious – specifically Quranic – ideas; in other words, he was a reasoning philosopher who mission was to create a version of Islam – yet again, Qur'an mainly – compatible with modern scientific research. He was a diligent student of German philosophy and had clearly recognized the exercises which could render any faith lie frail and submissive before intellectual progress of the human race. As wisely recognized, Iqbal adored his creed, and his honest intentions were to protect “Mohammedanism” from the emerging onslaught of science in Asia.

How did Iqbal find a way to equally compare Islam and science? How did he defend the legends narrated in Qur'an the like of which are ridiculed in Bible? Well, there exist among Muslim certain groups of pure liberal origins. These factions reject any possibility of miraculous phenomena meddling in human affairs. You may call them the accused (or notorious, I can not decide) Hadith-Rejectors or the Qur'anists. One of Iqbal's contemporaries, Ghulam Ahmad Pervez (1903-85) – a close associate of Pakistan's founding father Muhammad Ali Jinnah – was the leader of one of such movements called Tulu-e-Islam (Rise of Islam). But we're going to a bit farther in history than we bought to. The man who Iqbal succeeds in what a simple believer would call bizarre beliefs, was none other than the celebrated Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, the intellectual father of All India Muslim League.

Sir Syed (1817-1898), as he's stated throughout all standard Pakistani text books, was a freethinker, if one allows me to categorize such a remarkable personality according to modern taxonomy. It's a Pakistani by birth, it's impossible you have never heard of his services to the Indian Muslim community. Stories are told how he held back politically-impoverished Muslims from joining the Hindu-dominant Congress rather preached the importance of English education for the creation of a more civilized Muslim generation. His Aligarh institutions were criticized by the mullahs, just like his amazing ideas about Qur'an, but historically people had to surrender before the surge of reason and had to confess that they hardly needed to adopt Western standards if they wanted to save the Muslims from evaporating before the heat of science.

But how did Sir Syed manage to spark such fierce controversies in India? Answer's quite simple and Pakistani students are taught about the entire melodrama in their high schools. Sir Syed had gone crazy over exegesis of Qur'an. For example, Muslims believe in existence of spirits called the genies or the jinn. Sir Syed disbelieved in genies and interpreted metaphorically the verses of Qur'an noting Prophet Muhammad's (bless him and his posterity) encounters with these spirits. He refused to believe in seven heavens. Again, it was some allegorical mystery for him. He also intervened in several jurisprudential problems and differed from the mainstream fiqht.

The job Sir Syed wished to perform was to purify Qur'an from israiliyat or the biblical accounts Muslims had begun using to explain certain Qur'anic stories. His concerns were appreciable. For instance, some Muslims still believe that Adam was banished from heavens because he approached the Forbidden Tree however this is the biblical interpretation of the Fall story. Qur'an has explicitly stated Adam's migration to earth after his approach being forgiven by the Almighty. Another example is the story that Jacob fooled his father to become a prophet when Isaac had intended his blessings for his beloved Esau. There are accounts of Abraham lying three times and passing Sarah as his sister in Egypt. And how one can forget the Deluge? Nowhere in Qur'an it is stated that the Flood was universal. Quran speaks of it as a punishment for Noah's nation; it never takes the entire human population into consideration. So, Sir Syed was writing against these Bible-based distortions of Quran's intellectual messages and mythical (pseudo-historical) interpretation of its moral stories.

But the problem was many of these false legends attributed to God's Word claim origins from the hadiths or the sayings Muhammad was reported to had uttered. Sir Syed was never lacking in his love and trust for Allah's final apostle. No matter how scientific you get, Muhammad is still the infallible intellectual protagonist you can proudly represent before a westernized world as the perfect example for mankind to follow. So, Sir Syed selected the one option he stumbled upon ie ie rejection of such hadiths. He totally denied submitting before this kind of tafsir or exegesis of Qur'an and used science to understand the Book of the Lord. There were no miracles in this world, as per Sir Syed's analysis. God runs this universe according to His principles which we call the laws of physics. Science is what God created so we could not dare speak against science, was Sir Syed's version of Islam.

Thus, one can understand that the accounts of Adam and Eve, the Creationism, the Forbidden Tree, the Original Sin and the Fall of Man were legends in the eyes of Sir Syed. Iqbal, when studied these stories, followed suite.

Iqbal had a PhD in philosophy from the Munich University for his treat on Persian metaphysics. There's even a street in Heidelberg (Germany) named after him. Iqbal was once invited by the Italian fascist dictator Mussolini for a brief interview. This respect the Poet of the East commanded in the West was not only because of his poetry (for example, his Secrets of the Self) but primarily due to his philosophical outlooks. The ideas he's discussed in his versions may be more in number but of less magnitude than the ones he communicated to the public via his discourses. These lectures have been compiled as a book known as Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam. The chapter Hereby being explained is the Conception of God and the Meaning of Prayer.

According to Iqbal, there exists a general “Qur'anic method of complete or partial transformation of legends in order to besoul them with new ideas”. For evidence, he provides with the example of the Fall story and compares its biblical and Qur'anic versions.

“But the clue to a better understanding of our difficulty is given in the legend relating to what is called the Fall of Man. an entirely fresh meaning into it. ” Observe how Iqbal repeatedly calls the account of Adam a legend. “The Qur'anic method of complete or partial transformation of legends in order to besoul them with new ideas, and thus to adapt them to the advancing spirit of time, is an important point which has almost always been overlooked both by Muslim and non- Muslim students of Islam. The object of the Qur'an in dealing with these legends is seldom historical; it almost always aims at giving them a universal moral or philosophical import. ” This is the most important part where Iqbal denies any historical value of the Fall story. “And it achieves this object by omitting the names of persons and locales which tend to limit the meaning of a legend by giving it the color of a specific historical event, and also by deleting details which appear to belong to a different order of feeling. This is not an uncommon method of dealing with legends. It is common in non-religious literature. An instance in point is the legend of Faust, to which the touch of Goethe's genius has given a wholly new meaning. ”

“It is, indeed, impossible to demarcate the stages of its growth, and to set out clearly the various human motives which must have worked in its slow transformation.” This sentence certainly exemplifies that the story of Fall got distorted with time and people inserted their own ideas in it in to explain the mystery of our species' origin.

“But confining ourselves to the Semitic form of the myth …” The choice of words to describe the Fall story clearly displays Iqbal's incredulity and his doubts over Creationism.

“… it is highly probable that it is anose out of the primitive man's desire to explain to itself the infinite misery of his play in an uncongenial environment …” Iqbal's direct attempt here is to discredit the biblical outlook of the Fall account where Adam is sent on earth as a punishment for the Original Sin and the entire human population is subjected to misery because of their ancestor's alleged crime. The poet here has accurately unmasked the human elements responsible for creating the whole legend of the Original Sin which Quran has so justly denied. As Iqbal understands, Qur'an defends Adam and Eve when both are charged with the offense, unlike Pentateuch where the woman has been accused of making her man disobey the Lord. Similarly, Qur'an mentions God's forgiveness before Adam's Fall. Thus, in Qur'anic version of this story, human migration to earth did not occur due to God's wrath rather because of God's “big plan” for His beloved creatures.

But the story of Genesis today's Jews and Christians adhere to represent humans in a very miserable light when it says:

To the woman he said, “I will make your pains in childbearing very severe; with pain you will give birth to children. To Adam he said, “Because you listened to your wife and ate from the tree about which I commanded you, 'You must not eat of it,'” Cursed is the ground because of you; through painful toil you will eat of it all the days of your life. It will produce thorns and thistles for you, and you will eat the plants of the field. By the sweat of your brow you will eat your food until you return to the ground, since from it you were taken; for dust you are and to dust you will return. ”

(Genesis 3: 16-19)

Compare the biblical account with the Qur'anic one.

But Satan caused them to slip out of it and removed them from that [condition] in which they had been. And We said, “Go down, [all of you], as enemies to one another, and you will have upon the earth a place of settlement and provision for a time.” Then Adam received from his Lord [some] words, and He accepted his repentance. Indeed, it is He who is the Accepting of repentance, the Merciful. We said, “Go down from it, all of you. And when guidance comes to you from Me, whoever follows My guidance – there will be no fear concerning them, nor will they grieve.

(Qur'an 2: 36-38)

“Having no control over the forces of nature, a pessimistic view of life was perfectly natural to him.” Here again Iqbal refers to the biblical legend where man accuse his foremost ancestor Adam for sinning against God and bringing misfortune over his descendants.

“Thus, in an old Babylonian inscription, we find the serpent (pholic symbol), the tree, and the woman offering an apple (symbol of virginity) to the man.” Iqbal has unduly studied the Babylonian (more precisely, Sumerian) origins of all Semantic religions. The story of Fall is not unique with Bible or Qur'an, neither is the account of Flood. Both legends are traceable as far as 2,000 BC. Any student of ancient Mesopotamian civilizations can narrate the characteristic features of the myths of Gilgamesh. Similarly, as Iqbal speaks, the story of Fall exhausted long before rabbis wrote down the Law. Iqbal accuses Bible of retelling an allegoric story in pure historical terms, thereby ruining its moral lessons and misleading the believers in assuming the fall to be an actual historic event. He appreciates Qur'an's preservation Fall's philosophical display.

“The way in which the Qur'an handles this legend becomes clear when we compare it with the narration of the Book of Genesis. The remarkable points of difference between the Qur'anic and the Biblical narratives suggest unmistakably the purpose of the Qur'anic narration. ” The purpose of Qur'anic narration is to analyze the story of Fall philosophically. Iqbal once more denies any historical value of the Fall account – he has called it a myth or a legend multiple times – and insists that the characters of Adam and Eve were never meant to be created as mankind's biological ancestors. For Iqbal, Qur'an considers Adam to be precursor to human civilization.

“The Qur'an omits the serpent and the rib-story altogether.” The former omission was designed to “free the story from its phallic setting”. As any religious researcher is aware, the phallus is one of the most ancient deities in mankind's history. From India to Egypt, the male and female genitalia were worshiped as means of reproduction which they certainly still are. It was just like worshiping sun because it is the largest source of heat and light for us earthlings or worshiping fire because it keeps wild beasts away from a human gathering. That's how ancient religions developed. But, in Iqbal's view, God did not reveal His final words in order to repeat such ancient myths. That's why Quran has omitted all references to the serpent and the rib-story. One can argue that the serpent of the Bible and the Satan of Qur'an are the same creatures or Quran also mentions Eve's birth from Adam. O mankind, fear your Lord, who created you from one soul and created from it its mate (Q. 4: 1).

Here one may attempt to elaborate Iqbal's vision of Qur'anic metaphors. Bible narrates the story of a serpent actually entering Adam's physical paradise and spoiling his future. Qur'an represents Satan as an entity that seeks to spark evil in the hearts of man. The Qur'anic “serpent” is a more spiritual being. Similarly, Qur'an never states that Eve was created from Adam's rib. The verse quoted above can be interpreted in many different ways. According to one theory, God created Eve from Adam's leftover clay,

“The latter omission is meant to suggest that the purpose of the Qur'anic narration is not historical, as in the case of the Old Testament, which gives us an account of the origin of the first human pair by way of a prelude to the history of Israel. ” Iqbal has now clarified his perspective that Qur'an Adam was not the biological ancestor of human beings rather.

“Indeed, in the verses which deal with the origin of man as a living being, the Qur'an uses the words Bashar or Insan, not Adam, which it reserves for man in his capacity of God's vicegerent on earth.” In other words, man existed before Adam. Adam was the awakening of modern humans when they discovered the necessities of culture and the benefits of civilization. This statement of Iqbal is quite true in light of the Theory of Evolution and the failure of biblical missions to equally stand by their religious frenzies and the scientific revelations of the past five hundred years.

If we review the Evolution, we learn that man distinguished itself from the chimps some seven million years ago. It was the time when the genus homo parted its away from the genus pan. The genus homo was the prelude to the story of Adam. many species emerged and got extinced with the passage of time. There were Homo erectus, Homo habilis, Homo naledi, the Heidelberg people etc. The hobbits were the last to die before Homo sapiens. It was ten thousand years ago that Homo sapiens rose victorious in the battle of Natural Selection and won the tournament of the “survival of the fittest”. The man who came up with world's first civilization was Iqbal's Adam. He sees Adam and Eve not as two specific persons but as a particular era in human history in which people began to realize they were much more than simple animals; they realized they were God's vicegerents of the planet earth!

Just look at the story of the Fall once more and you can see the unspoken factors Iqbal wanted to put with his lecture. Adam's creation was contested by the angels. That could be a sign towards natural Selection. Adam overpowered angels with his knowledge. Iqbal calls this the occult or the hidden secrets man learned before outsmarting other biological animals on earth. Adam approached the Forbidden Tree when he was not expected to do that. Iqbal calls it man's first free choice. Man started to make his own complex decisions. So Iqbal has found multiple metaphors in the Qur'anic narration of the Fall.

“The word Adam is retained and used more as a concept than as the name of a concrete human individual.” Voila! No words can describe the vision of Iqbal better than this sentence. Adam was, Iqbal notes, more than a concept than an actual historic human being. Iqbal's Adam was a genre in human history.

“The Old Testament curses the earth for Adam's act of disobedience …” As we have seen in the verses quoted above. Iqbal further says: “Nor does the Qur'an regard the earth as a torture-hall where an elementally wicked humanity is imputed for an original act of sin.”

“Nor is there any reason to suppose that the word Jannat (garden) as used here means the supersensual paradise from which man is supposed to have fallen on this earth. “And We have caused you to grow from the earth”, says the Qur'an. ” In other words, Iqbal has accepted the truth of the Evolution. Adam fell from the heavens above but Iqbal believes that the jannat referred to in Qur'an is not the paradise where the well-doers will go on the Day of Resurrection. He also denies that Adam was anywhere out of earth when he approached the Forbidden Tree. Thus, Iqbal's jannat was somewhere on our planet. His Adam had been inhabiting the world long before the Fall. The entire episode of the Fall occurred right here on earth because, as Iqbal believes, the story of Adam is a mere reflection against the awakening of a civilized human population.

Quran says that human has grown from the earth. What other example of the Evolution mentioned in the Holy Writ can there be? That's how Iqbal's words are impressing me right now. Read this sentence again: “According to the Qur'an, man is not a stranger on this earth.”

“The Jannat, mentioned in the legend, can not mean the eternal abode of the rational.” The jannat from where Adam came from exists right before our own eyes.

“In the Jannat mentioned in the legend, however, the very first event that took place was man's sin of disobedience followed by his expulsion.” Qur'an exlicitly states that there will be nothing improper in the heavens where the believers are meant to stay forever. The jannat where Adam could sin against God can not be the jannat mentioned in Qur'an as mankind's and eternal abode. The concept Iqbal has communicated is not a novel one. There are certain Muslim scholars who believe that Adam did not live in the actual jannat or the Adam mentioned in Qur'an is someone else than the father of all humans.

“In the second episode of the legend the garden is described as a place” where there is neither hunger nor nor thirst, neither heat nor nakedness. “” I am, therefore, inclined to think that the Jannat in the Qur'anic narration is the conception of a primitive state in which man is practically unrelated to his environment and consequently does not feel the sting of human desires the birth of which alone marks the beginning of human culture. ” hence, the epitome of our analysis or rather Iqbal's analysis. According to Iqbal, Qur'an narrates the story of mankind's transition from the state of ignorance to that of knowledge. The primitive state of early humans has been denoted as a garden because mankind was ignorant of its rightful place in the cosmic structure. Adam symbolizes the moment man realized the importance of civilization. In short, the Fall of Man, in Qur'anic terms, is the rise of man in evolutionary biology.

“Thus we see that the Qur'anic legend of the Fall has nothing to do with the first appearance of man on this planet. Its purpose is rather to indicate man's rise from a primitive state of instinctive appetite to the conscious possession of a free self , capable of doubt and disobedience. ” Whereas Torah's account of the Fall has everything to do with the first appearance of man on this planet. However, as Iqbal has declared, Qur'an mentions the existence of humans long before Adam and Eve. The pre-Adam man was an animal, capable only of surviving and reproducing like all other biological entities. Adam is the moment when man began to reason. He became capable of observation and deduction. He began to understand his problems and look for their solutions. Analysis and deduction became his new tools of survival. Thus, Adam was the first modern human on earth.


Now, these are all the point we can deduce from this lecture of Iqbal:

• Humans inhabited earth before the appearance of Adam and Eve. Qur'an never states that Adam and Eve were the first human beings ever created.

• Adam and Eve were not two individuals but the pair is a representation of human civilization. The Fall of Adam symbolizes the awakening of human consciousness.

• The Garden of Eden exists right here on earth and is a different place than the heavens where the good souls will stay.

This article is not a criticism of Iqbal but some of the ideas he discusses are praiseworthy. His example closely resembles Sir Syed whatever all Pakistanis remember with reverence but who religious beliefs are rejected and condemned. Iqbal's personality held many diverseities. He was a Sunni Muslims yet his adoration of Ali (d. 661), the first cousin of Prophet Muhammad (bless him and his posterity), and Fatimah (d. 632), the beloved daughter of Allah's Apostle, is a Shia trait in nature. He supported democracy but was a great admirer of Nikolai Lenin. He is alleged to be the originator of the idea of ​​Pakistan but his patriotic poems about a United Hindustan are still popular in India.

In short, Iqbal was a wonderful man and, just like all wonderful men, he had his faults to balance his virtues.

A Review of Michael Baxandall’s Painting and Experience in 15th Century Italy

Baxandall's Painting and Experience in Fifteenth-Century Italy: A Primer in the Social History of Pictorial Style was first published in 1972. Although relatively short it has been notably published in numerous languages, most recently Chinese, with a second edition published in 1988. Since publication it has been described in such favorable terms as being 'intelligent,…

Baxandall's Painting and Experience in Fifteenth-Century Italy: A Primer in the Social History of Pictorial Style was first published in 1972. Although relatively short it has been notably published in numerous languages, most recently Chinese, with a second edition published in 1988. Since publication it has been described in such favorable terms as being 'intelligent, persuasive, interesting, and lucidly argued' to 'concise and neatly written, and being found to' present new and important material '. It may have been published as a book with three chapters. In reality it is three books in one.

Baxandall brings together many strands of previous art historical methodology and moves them forward in Painting and Experience. As the history of art was emerging discipline art came to be seen as the embodiment of a distinct expression of particular societies and civilizations. The pioneer of this was Johann Joachim Winckelmann in his History of the Art of Antiquity (1764). Baxandall is certainly not the first to consider how an audience views a painting. He is not the first to discuss patronage either given Haskell published his Patrons and Painters in 1963. Lacan created the concept of the 'gaze' and Gombrich the idea of ​​'the beadholder's share' before Baxandall published Painting and Experience. Baxandall does describe chapter two of Painting and Experience as 'Gombrichian'. Baxandall sent time with anthropologists and their exploration into culture, particularly that of Herskovits' and his ideas on cognitive style. Baxandall's approach focuses on how the style of paintings is influenced by patrons who commission and view paintings. The patron's view is culturally constructed. For Baxandall 'a fifteen-century painting is the deposit of a social relationship'. This quote is the opening sentence of the first chapter in Painting and Experience; 'Conditions of Trade'.

Baxandall's first chapter in Painting and Experience on the 'Conditions of Trade' seeks to explain that the change in style within paintings seen over the course of the fifteenth century is identified in the content of contracts and letters between patron and painter. Further to this that the development of pictorial style is the result of a symbiotic relationship between artist and patron. However, this relationship is governed by 'institutions and conventions – commercial, religious, perceptual, in the widest sense social … [that] influenced the forms of what they together made'. Baxandall claims his approach to the study of patron and painter was in no way impected by Francis Haskell's seminal 1963 book, Patrons and Painters nor by DS Chambers' Patrons and Artists in the Italian Renaissance.

Baxandall's main evidence to support the development of pictorial style is demonstrated by the change in the emphasis to the skill of the artist over the materials to be used in the production of a painting as shown by the terms of the contract between artist and client. This is the unique element that Baxandall introduces to the examination of contracts between patron and painter and one that had not previously been explored. He supports this argument by referring to some contracts where the terms show how patrons demonstrated the eminent position of skill over materials. In the 1485 contract between Ghirlandaio and Giovanni Tornabuoni, the specifics of the contract stated that the background was to include 'figures, building, castles, cities.' In earlier contracts the background would be gilding; thus Tornabuoni is ensuring that there is an 'expenditure of labor, if not skill' in this commission.

Baxandall states that 'It would be futile to account for this sort of development simply within the history of art'. Indeed to ensure his argument is placed in the domain of social and cultural history Baxandall reiterates the role, availability and perception of gold in fifteenth-century Italy. Baxandall uses the story of the Sienese ambassador's humiliation at King Alfonso's court in Naples over his elaborate dress as an example of how such conspicuous consumption was disparaged. He cites the need for 'old money' to be able to differentiate itself from 'new money' and the rise of humanism as reasons for the move towards buying skill as a valuable asset to display.

Herein lies the main difficulty with Baxandall's approach to identifying the influence of society on pictorial style through the conditions of trade. How would the viewer of a painting recognize that skill had been purchased? Baxandall asks this question himself and states that there would be no record of it within the contract. It was not the usual practice at that time for views on paintings to be recorded as they are today supposedly there is little evidence of this. Additionally, there is nothing in the contract that Baxandall presents us with that mentions the actual aesthetic of the painting; expressions of the characters; the iconography, proportions or colors to be used.

Joseph Manca was particularly critical of this chapter in stating that 'Baxandall's early discussion of contracts has us imagining a dependent artist who is ever-ready to echo the sentiments of his patrons or public'. We know this is not true. Bellini refused to paint for Isabella d'Este because he was not comfortable painting to her design. Even though Perugino accepted the commission from Isabella he 'found the theme little suited to his art'.

Baxandall makes no accommodation for the rising agency of the artist and the materials to which they have access as influences on style. Andrea Mantegna's style was heavily influenced by his visits to Rome where he saw many discoveries from ancient Rome, often taking them back to Mantua. Furthermore, Baxandall does not examine the training that artists received during fifteenth-century Italy to ascertain whether this could be an explanation of their style or how it developed. All of the painters Baxandall referes to were part of workshops and were trained by a master. As such there would be a style that would emanate from these workshops. It was recognized that pupils of Squarcino, including Mantegna and Marco Zoppo, 'came to have common features in their art'. In 1996 he said 'I did not like the first chapter of Painting and Experience. I had done it quickly because something was needed, and it seemed to me a bit crass'.

The central chapter of Painting and Experience is about the 'whole notice of the cognitive style in the second chapter, which to me is the most important chapter, [and] is straight from anthropology. This chapter is Baxandall's idea of ​​the 'Period Eye'.

Baxandall opens the 'period eye' by stating that the physiological way in which we all see is the same, but at the point of interpretation the 'human equipment for visual perception ceases to be uniform, from one man to the next'. In simple terms, the 'period eye' is the social acts and cultural practices that shape visual forms within a given culture. Furthermore, these experiences are both shaped by and representative of that culture. As a consequence of this patrons created a brief for painters that embodied these cultural significant representations. The painter then deliveries paintings in such a way as to satisfy the patron's requirements including these culturally significant items within their paintings. Baxandall's chapter on the 'period eye' is a tool for us to use so that we, the twenty-first-century viewer can view fifteenth-century Italian paintings through the same lens as a fifteen-century Italian businessman. The 'period eye' is an innovative concept that embodied a synchronic approach to the understanding of art production. It moves away from the cause and effect ideas that were taking hold of art historical inquiry in the early 1970s. But how was it constructed?

Baxandall's asserted that many of the skills viewers acquired when observing paintings were acquainted outside the realm of looking at paintings. This is where he examines the economic machinations of Florence's mercantile community and notes that barrel gauging, the rule of three, arithmetic and mathematics were skills much required by merchants, and these cave them a more sophisticated visual apparatus with which to view paintings. Baxandall believes that the ability to do such things as gauge volumes at a glance enabled the mercantile classes to perceive geometric shapes in paintings and understand their size and proportion within the painting relative to the other objects contained within it.

Baxandall also reiterates to dance and gesture as further examples from the social practices of the day that enabled viewers of paintings to understand what was happening within them. Baxandall asserts that the broad engagement in the Bassa Danza enabled the courtly and mercantile classes to see and understand, movement within paintings.

One of the major questions posed by the application of the 'period eye' is evidence that it has been applied correctly. Using Baxandall's approach how did you know if you got it right – is it ever possible for a twenty-first century Englishman to view a painting as a fifteen-century businessman even with an insight into Italian Renaissance society and culture? The evidence that Baxandall relations on to demonstrate that the pictorial style of fifteenth-century Italian painting developed seemed extremely tenuous. Goldman, in his review of Painting and Experience, challenges Baxandall on this saying that there is no evidence that modern-day building contractors and carpenters are especially skilled at identifying the compositional elements that they see in a Mondrian. Likewise, the argument put forward by Goldman can be extrapolated into the other examples that Baxandall uses such as dance being reflective of movement in paintings. An example is Botticelli's 'Pallas and the Centaur' where Baxandall describes it is a ballo in due which Hermeren, in his review, says this is not a useful piece of evidence as most paintings can be described in that way.

The final chapter turns attention to primary sources as Baxandall referees to Cristoforo Landino's writings on the descriptors used during the fifteenth-century in Italy for various styles seen in paintings. The reason for doing so is that Baxandall claims this is the method through which the twenty-first-century viewer can interpret documents about paintings that were written during the fifteenth-century by those not skilled in describing paintings. With this tool, it is then possible to gain a clear understanding of what was meant by terms such as aria and dolce. Baxandall uses this approach to interpret the meaning to the adjectives contained within the letter to the Duke of Milan from his agent within chapter one of Painting and Experience.

Although this chapter is detailed and provides a 'meticulous analysis of Landino's terminology of art' Middledorf believes it does little to 'throw any light on the style of Renaissance painting'. As it is always difficult for words to capture what a painting is conveying this chapter, although worthy, it does not provide sufficient information that is of value to a contemporary viewer in entering the mindset of the fifteenth-century viewer. It is illegally a patron used such language when commissioning paintings. It is also questionable whether this was the type of language that was used among artists themselves to discuss their styles and approaches. Of course, there is a material from artists of that time that describe how paintings can best be delivered, but even these seem too abstract to be of practical value as per the example of Leonardo da Vinci writing on 'prompto'.

On publication Painting and Experience received less attention that Baxandall's Giotto and the Orators. 'when that book came out many people did not like it for various reasons'. One of the main reasons was the belief that Baxandall was bringing back the Zeitgeist. This leads us to other problems identified in response to the question of what kind of Renaissance painting and experience give us. It gives us a Renaissance that centers on Italy in the fifteenth century, on the elite within society as a group and men only. It is a group of people that represents a fraction of society. They do commission most of the paintings hung in public, but they are not the only viewers of it. The full congration at Church would view these paintings, and they came from all walks of life. For this reason, Marxist social historians, such as TJ Clark, took issue with the book claiming that it was not a true social history as it focused only on the elite within society without 'dealing with issues of class, ideology and power'.

Baxandall also rejects the idea that the individual influences pictorial style given each experience the world in a different way. He acknowledges that this is true but that the differences are insignificant. This is in stark contrast to 'the Burkhardtian idea that individualism in the Renaissance changed subject matter (the expansion of portrait, for example)'. Four years before the second edition of Painting and Experience Stephen Greenblatt published Renaissance Self-fashioning, a book devoted to the methods through which individuals created their public personas in the Renaissance.

There are additional problems raised by Baxandall's method. The evidence that Baxandall relies on to support his theses is literary. For example, in addition to chapter three's use of Landino's writings in chapter two made much of the sermons as a source of information through which to build the 'period eye' and in chapter one all of the evidence exists within written contracts. This begs the question of how Baxandall's approach is applied to a society in which the art survives, but the writing does not. For example, the Scythians of Central Asia, where schools admit there is a lot that will not be understood by this ancient people because they had no written language. It appears that in this instance that Baxandall's approach is impossible to adopt and herein we see another of its limitations.

Perhaps the most glaring omission in Painting and Experience is any reference to the role that the revival of classical art played in the creation of Renaissance paintings and their style. The Renaissance was the rebirth of antiquity. Burkhardt writes a chapter on the revival of antiquity in The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy. It must be argued that the revival of antiquity is a contribution to the pictorial style of fifteenth-century Italy.

Painting and Experience had its many supporters who viewed it has an important guide to bringing out the direct causal relationships between artistic and social change. It was met warmly and was influential in disciples beyond just art history such as anthropology, sociology and history as well as being accredited with the creation of the term 'visual culture'. In 1981 Bourdieu and Desault dedicated a special issue of Actes de la recherche en sciences sociales to Baxandall.

Baxandalls' analysis of the conditions of trade, despite some shortcomings, has not been without influence. Baxandall referers to money and the payment mechanism in this chapter saying that 'money is very important for art history'. His focus on the economic aspect of the production of painting garnered favorable reactions from 'those drawn to the notion of economic history as a shaper of culture'. In the field of sociology: 'His interest in markets and patronage made him a natural point of reference for work in the production of culture perspective, such as Howard Becker's (1982) Art Worlds'. However, Baxandall was very critical of this first chapter.

Andrew Randolph extends the idea of ​​the 'period eye' to the 'gendered eye' in an exploration of how the period eye can be applied to women. Pierre Bourdieu creates the concept of the 'social genesis of the eye' which is the revision of his concept of 'encoding / decoding' after having encountered painting and experience which allowed Bourdieu to 'place a proper emphasis on particular social activities which engage and train the individual's cognitive apparatus'. Clifford Geertz was an anthropologist who was able to refine the early structuralist model in anthropology that had been created by Levi-Strauss by incorporating ideas from Painting and Experience. In the field of history of art, Svetlana Alpers applied aspects of Painting and Experience in her book on Dutch art, The Art of Describing and accredited Baxandall with creating the term 'visual culture'. For historians, Ludmilla Jordanova posits that the approach contained within Painting and Experience highlights to historians the importance of approaching visual materials with care and that it can assist in identifying the visual skills and habits, social structure and the distribution of wealth within a society.

Painting and Experience was described by Baxandall as 'pretty lightweight and flighty'. It was not written for historians of art but was borne out of a series of lectures that Baxandall gave to history students. As we have seen it has had an exceptional impact not only in Renaissance studies and history of art but across many other disciples too. It has spawned ideas of the 'social eye', the 'gendered eye' and even gone on to create new terminology in the form of 'visual culture'. It is a book to be found on reading lists at many universities around the world today. Painting and Experience may have its problems but remains important because it highlights how interconnected life and art have really become. What Baxandall tries to give us is a set of tools to rebuild the Quattrocentro lens for ourselves; not only through the 'period eye' but analyzes of contracts between patrons and painters. Along with that and an understanding of the critical art historical terms of the time, Baxandall enables us to identify the social relationships out of which paintings were produced by analyzing the visual skill set of the period. We are left wondering whether we have been able to do that. There are no empirical means of knowing whether we have successfully applied the 'period eye'. We are in fact left to 'rely on ingenious reconstruction and guesswork'. The visual skills Baxandall attributes to the mercantile classes he believes are derived from their business practices, such as gauging barrels, affecting their ability to appreciate better forms and volumes within paintings is nothing less than tenuous. Not only that but the approach is specific to a single period and has to be rebuilt each time it is applied to a different era. Baxandall's approach allows for no concept of the agency of the artist, their training or in fact the importance of antiquity to fifteenth-century Italians.

The question remains as to whether it is possible to write a 'social history of style'. Baxandall has tried to do so but his assumptions and extrapolations and the inability to prove success leave an approach that is too shaky to set a robust method.

Indigenous People Weaving Culture in Cambodia

Currently, Mondulkiri Indigenous People's Association for Development (MIPAD), which has been supported by Plan International Cambodia, is carrying out its activities under the project “Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation of Indigenous Communities in Mondulkiri”. In this regard, MIPAD has sent a project team to study and research the history of textile weaving and…

Currently, Mondulkiri Indigenous People's Association for Development (MIPAD), which has been supported by Plan International Cambodia, is carrying out its activities under the project “Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation of Indigenous Communities in Mondulkiri”. In this regard, MIPAD has sent a project team to study and research the history of textile weaving and weaving equipment of Bunong ethnic minority group for further research documents. In addition, the association has formed a group of weavers, mostly women, and has received training in weaving skills in addition to the weaving skills that they had acquired from their ancestors. And this work is also in addition to agricultural work which has been affected by climate change.

The textile weaving of Bu nong ethnic minority can weave such scarfs (The Kama, Bunong's language), blankets, band (Yus), handkerchiefs and handbags. The weaving process is similar in size to the size, while the style is not as easy as it is different in its production. The weaving process is long or short, depending on the production of various materials in large or small size. Usually, weaving a scarf of 20 × 180, 20 × 200, 25 × 180, 25 × 200 takes 4 days and is used for all events. A skirt with red and black colors, and together with some signs such as vegetable, seeds, dove's egg, size 50 x 200, 60 x 200 takes 60 days and according to routine, it takes 1 year. Moreover, it was used in the wedding in which the groom's family offers to the bride's family, and then they use it to cover the head of buffalo which they already kill and used in the ceremony as souvenirs and objects. After the ceremony, the bride's mother can use it as a blanket or skirts. A black and white band, consisting of the signs of human, trees, mountain, buffalos, cows and Pythagorean scratches sign; size 50 x 200, 60 x 200, 70 x 200, takes about 90 days, traditionally takes 1 year and 3 months, and is used for the same ceremony like scarfs. A small bandwidth can exchange a small buffalo, one cow, or one goat. A blanket with red, black, and white color, consisting of signs such as a small stream, houses, human, and mountains in the size of 250 × 300, 250 × 400, takes 180 days; Traditionally it takes two-year. In the past, indigenous people, Bunong, do weaving only when they are free from doing farming. As a result, the weaving of Bunong takes very long time and the output from weaving is really valuable for them.

For its color, it was originally white, black, and red. To get a black color, Bunong collections small trees (not specific) and grind those trees to receive black ink. Once they received, they mixed black ink with cotton thread to get black cotton. For red, they traditionally used fruits which were were shaped like rambutan, and make it as red liquid and then mixed with cotton to become red-colored. Indigenous people, Bunong, popular plant cotton for the purpose of their weaving culture.

Bunong's weaving culture, all weavers must have enough equipment before they can weave, and all of them are Kei (Nak Cha, Bunong's language), and Hong. And weaving and Design (Korm), there are designs that can be noted that it is the ancient Bunong indigenous community, such as: kitchen, Kaisna, arrow, guord, human, tiger's nose, python, cucumber's seed, doves, snake, spider's nest, worm's eyes, mountain, streams, person holding hands, walking path, great silver water beetle, wasp, grasshopper, jumbo of tiger, mosquitoes, trees, waterfalls, wild streams baby, pumpkin, rice. Each of designs represented: Arrow and Kaisna representing the hunting of Indigenous Peoples (Bunong). The kitchen represents the place of food. The python, the snake image, the nose of tiger image, and the great silver water beetle image represent fierce wildlife. The images of guord, cucumber, pumpkin, and rice represent the planting of crops. The images of a waterfall, wildlife, stream, mountain, and water represent the livelihood landscape of the ethnic minority, Bunong. Rabbits represent wise and intelligent people. Creating design is to make the textile fabrics look more attractive and beautiful. In that, the use of color also has its meaning, such as the colorful is the emblem of the hot element. Light colors are the cold element which refers to the beauty of nature and natural refreshing. As a result, they look beautiful in the Bunong's weaving culture as well as the design of each textile.

Today, the weaving culture of Bunong Indigenous Peoples in Cambodia has been uninterested by people, since so far, a lot of them focus on only farming and pay very less attention and very less time practicing weaving skills that have been left behind by their ancestors. Because of the climate change, the farming, as well as the growing of the plant, have been seriously affected and the family situation of Indigenous Peoples, Bunong, have been challenged in their lives. Therefore, Mondulkiri Indigenous People's Association for Development, under the support of Plan International Cambodia, has strived to provide training in agriculture, seeds selection, plant protection, planting techniques as well as to study the weaving tradition and provide additional skills to them in order to earn additional income away from doing farming or agriculture.

Emperor Caligula of Rome and His Horse Igcitatus

There are many weird tales that interest us and one of them is about Caligula the Roman emperor. I first read about Caligula while in college and the man interested me as a maverick emperor and sometimes wonder if he was sane. Maybe he was and was just like Nero, another emperor who played the…

There are many weird tales that interest us and one of them is about Caligula the Roman emperor. I first read about Caligula while in college and the man interested me as a maverick emperor and sometimes wonder if he was sane. Maybe he was and was just like Nero, another emperor who played the fiddle while he had ordered the burning of Rome. Many say that Caligula was insane, but some of his actions show that he was anything but insane. He just liked pleasure.

Caligula ruled the Roman empire from 37-41 AD, a good 69 years after the death of Julius Caesar. From all accounts, he was a man addicted to organs with his slaves and queens and women of Rome. he reportedly also committed incest with his sisters. These are famous and have been put on celluloid by Hollywood. I saw the movie in London, as it was sponsored by the censor board in India.

But there is another fact about Caligula that makes interesting reading and that concerns his horse named Incitatus. This horse was the love of Caligula and he doted on the animal. Many historians have brought out that Caligula was so captivated by the horse that he wanted to make him a Consul. Incidentally, a Roman consul was the highest title after the emperor and greatly respected. Many Romans aspired to be Consuls.

Caligula gifted a marble stable to Incitatus and he was fed by a retinue of valets and looked after by the Roman guard. One historian has opined that Caligula would have made his horse a consul, in case he had lived longer. Why did Caligula want to make a horse as a consul? Was he mad?

I will hazard a guess that Caligula was an intelligent man and certainly not insane. He wanted to make the horse a Consul, to put the other senators and consuls in their proper place and make them realize that were nothing. In a way, he wanted to show the Consuls their place.

The legend of the horse and his elevation as a consul is detailed by the historian Suetonius. He opines that Caligula's murder in 41AD put an end to his making the horse Incitatus a consul. Another historian Cassius Dio mentions that the horse was fed with oats mixed with gold flakes. All in all, it's an interesting tale. Reminds me of the Indian ruler Mohammed Bin Tughlaq.

Defining Australia: Australian Aboriginal Culture

As we know there are many countries with many kind of cultures inside it. Culture is the characteristics and knowledge of a particular group of people involve religion, social habits, music, arts and the others. Australia is one of the example, it has always been considered a multicultural country which consists almost entirely of immigrants.…

As we know there are many countries with many kind of cultures inside it. Culture is the characteristics and knowledge of a particular group of people involve religion, social habits, music, arts and the others. Australia is one of the example, it has always been considered a multicultural country which consists almost entirely of immigrants. One of the interesting culture in Australia is the Australian Aboriginal people, one of the two distinct Indigenous peoples of Australia around the Torres Strait Islander peoples.

Australian Aboriginal culture can be the oldest continuous living culture on the planet which is it makes us more interested to know about them. First of all, an interesting thing about aboriginal culture is that Aboriginal belief systems are centered their practices and ceremonies on a belief in the Dreamtime. It is said that the dreaming is considered to be both the ancient time of creation and the reality of dreaming. For example, the Rainbow Serpent is a major ancestral being for many aboriginal people across Australia. Therefore, aboriginal people also perceived death as a transition to another life that is not completely different from the one they have left when they died.

If we talk about the Aboriginal art, we know that it includes work made in many different way including painting on leaves, wood craving, rock carving, sculpting, ceremonial clothing, dot painting, bark painting and sand painting. Aboriginal art sees closely linked to religious ceremonies or rituals. Symbols are used in aboriginal art, to show different things. Interestingly, Aboriginal artists continue these traditions using both modern and traditional materials in their artwork.

There is another interesting thing about the Aboriginal people, they use a popular weapon for hunting called a boomerang. Except the boomerang, there are also other weapons such as spears, message sticks, canoes which provided an easy means of traveling through the lagoon, and the others. But, the one which draw my attention is the boomerang. How a flat thing like that can be use for hunting? When I think about the Aboriginal people use boomerangs for hunting, suddenly, that kind of question appears in my mind.

The fact is Aboriginal creation myths recount how the Ancestors formed the landscape of Australia. For Aboriginal people, the boomerang is a symbol of cultural endurance and a tangible link to their long presence on this continent. Amazingly, with more than 250 different language groups it is understandable that boomerang making varies across the continent. Larger, heavier boomerangs are used by inland and desert people, and lighter boomerangs are thrown by coastal and high country people. The vast majority of boomerangs are of the non returning variety.

Unexpectedly, boomerangs have many uses. They are weapons for hunting birds and other animals such as kangaroo and other marsupials. The hunter can throw the boomerang directly at the animal or make it bounce back off the ground. Surprisingly, in skilled hands, the boomerang is effective for hunting prey up to 100 meters away. Boomerangs can be used as a digging stick when foraging for root vegetables. They can also be used to make fire. Finally, boomerangs feature prominently in Aboriginal dance and music, as a percussion instrument when a pair are rattled together, and as an accessory to ceremonial dance.

The Agwagwa Festival: A Ghanaian Traditional Cultural Event for Unearthing Young Talents

The Agwagwa Festival is commemorated by the people of Kwahu Obemeng in the Eastern Region of Ghana. It has a long celebration record of hundred and twenty-five years! The whole concept of the event originated from the ingenuity of their early forebears to improvise a pushcart that could travel within the spaces in cocoa farms,…

The Agwagwa Festival is commemorated by the people of Kwahu Obemeng in the Eastern Region of Ghana. It has a long celebration record of hundred and twenty-five years! The whole concept of the event originated from the ingenuity of their early forebears to improvise a pushcart that could travel within the spaces in cocoa farms, transporting coca farmers from one spot to the other in their farms. It was also used by the young ones as a medium for entertainment while riding them after a stressful farming day. The name of the festival 'Agwagwa' was gotten from the sound of the traditional improvised pushcart when it was moved.

The improvised pushcart device was traditionally produced from the big and hard seeds of the local plant called Gyatofoa tree which was very common in the territories of Kwahu Obemeng in the Eastern Region of Ghana. Long flat beams were laid on the big hard seeds from the tree that served as tires for the moving pushcart. When it was sat on, it was pelled manually from the back by others. It could move from top mountains and hills while landing on lower shores. Today, due to advancement in technology, ball bearings that have been well cushioned are used as tires for the pushcart. Interestingly, the youth in the society has been given the freedom to experiment and provide interesting moving pushcarts with diverse designs and with any materials that they could lay their hands on. This has developed into an annual youth competition whenever the Agwagwa festival is commemorated during the first month of every year.

The annual competition has been an avenue for finding talented, creative and brilliant young members in the Eastern Region of Ghana who may not have received any form of formal education as a result of their impoverished state. The festival helps in bringing these genius young ones into the public spotlight so that well-meaning members of the society, philanthropists, funding agencies and youth aid agencies could come to their aid. Many fortunately talented youngsters have gotten such privileges and as such, have had access to formal education to hone their great skills and talents. The excellent and unique designs of the pushcarts produced by the young ones could be further developed into very interesting transportation machines. The festival is a traditional event for grooming young persons who would have wasted their talents because of poverty. Due to the festival, many of these youngsters can now have their wish fulfilled as they become future engineers and product designers for leading engineering firms.

The Agwagwa traditional festival receives very little support from funding agencies and companies. This is because it is not known by many people and agencies due to the poor advertisement and public sensitization. Therefore, the tourism industry, youth development initiatives and groups, funding agencies and well-meaning individuals must seek for ways of supporting the chief and traditional council of Kwahu Obemeng as they effectively plan and celebrate the festival. This all-important support and collaboration would help in using the festival in serving its core function which is to search for young talents and assist them to be great engineers and designers for national and global development.

The Giants That Built the Pyramid of Giza

I was recently asked whether the Giants who helped to build the pyramid of Giza has the same DNA as human beings. What is the arrangement of the double helix? From the questions it became clear that the concept of the forces of animism that take on forms is yet to sit well with many…

I was recently asked whether the Giants who helped to build the pyramid of Giza has the same DNA as human beings. What is the arrangement of the double helix? From the questions it became clear that the concept of the forces of animism that take on forms is yet to sit well with many people. But the issue of DNA I will handle in a separate article.

Anyone who has read my articles on The Pyramid of Giza and The Gods of Our Ancestors will have a better appreciation of what I am about to explain. And it is important to know that these thoughts are not mine, and that they derive from my understanding of the work In The Light Of Truth The Grail Message, a book written by a German author, Oscar Ernst Bernhardt who wrote under the pen name, Abd-ru-shin.

The giants we meet in mythology actually exist, and are still in existence today. It is only necessary to add that myths are the realities that we lost in the intellectual closet we locked ourselves in. So when we are told of an Atlas that stood on mount Atlas and held the sky, we are actually dealing with a depiction of the reality of a giant called Atlas, who resides on mount Atlas, andave its name to the mountain.In fact , many mountains have some of these giants inhabiting them.

Another species of adults are responsible for hurricanes. Their strides, race and activities result in destructive movement of air. They uproot trees and carry water to flood planes.

A different species cause earthquakes and volcanoes. They work in coordinated way, such that those form volcanoes serve as preparers for major earths and earth sinking, as they did in the sinking of Atlantis. I explained this in the article, The Sinking of Atlantis. They are still the same that will be responsible for the sinking of parts of Japan and much of Europe, which will be counter balanced by the rise of Atlantis at the center of the Atlantic Ocean.

They are the ones who helped the Incas to build the temple that was one of the most expensive in the world, since many parts of the temple and artifacts in it are in solid gold. They were also the ones who sank it under water. Today, its memories are in mythology as a mysterious temple at the bottom of a lake which, for current security reasons, I may not name. The giants will one day raise the temple when a global earthquake hits the earth, Atlantis rises, and many other political upheavals follow. Then, a new teaching will gain power with the force of a hurricane.

The time is near when all men's heart will be gripped with fear, when the great wonder appears in heaven.

Greece in Ancient Times

During the so called “Greek Dark Ages” before the Archaic time, people lived spread through Greece in small farming villages. As they grow larger, these villas started to develop. Some built walls. Most made a marketplace (an agora) along with a local community meeting place. Governments were developed by them and structured their people based…

During the so called “Greek Dark Ages” before the Archaic time, people lived spread through Greece in small farming villages. As they grow larger, these villas started to develop. Some built walls. Most made a marketplace (an agora) along with a local community meeting place. Governments were developed by them and structured their people based on some kind of set or constitution of laws. Armies were raised by them and collected taxes. And every single one of those city states (known as poleis) was believed to be protected by a specific god or perhaps goddess, to who the people of the polis owed a lot of reverence, sacrifice. and respect (Athens's deity was Athena, for example; as was Sparta's.)

Although their citizens had in typical what Herodotus named “the exact same inventory as well as the same speech, our shared temples of religious rituals and the gods, our similar customs,” every Greek city state was different. The largest, Sparta, controlled approximately 300 square kilometers of territory; probably the smallest had only several 100 people. Neverheless, by the dawn of the Archaic time in the seventh century BC, the city states had developed a variety of common characteristics. They each had economies that were based on farming, not trade. For this reason, acreage was each city-state's most precious resource. Moreover, many had overthrown their basileus, or hereditary kings, and had been ruled by a few of wealthy aristocrats.

These folks monopolized political power. (For instance, they refused to allow ordinary folks serve on assemblies or councils) Additionally, they are monopolized perfect farmland, as well as a few even advertised being descended from the gods. Because “the poor with the wives of minds and kids were enslaved to the rich as well as had no political rights,” Aristotle stated, “there was a struggle between the people and the nobles for much time.”

Emigration was one of the ways to relieve several of this tension. Land was the foremost source of money in the city states; it had also been, clearly, in supply that is finite. The strain of population growth pushed numerous males at bay from their house poleis and into sparsely populated places around Greece and also the Aegean. Between 750 BC as well as 600 BC, Greek colonies sprang up through the Mediterranean to Asia Minor, from North Africa on the coastline of the Black Sea. By the conclusion of the seventh century BC, there have been over 1,500 colonial poleis.

All these poleis was an impartial city state. This way, the colonies of the Archaic time were completely different from other colonies we're acquainted with. The individuals that lived there were not ruled by or perplexed bound to the city states from what they came. The brand new poleis were self-sufficient and self-governing.

As time passed plus their populations large, a lot of these agricultural city states began to produce consumer products like pottery, cloth, metalwork and wine. Some folks – usually not members of the old aristocracy – became very wealthy by trade in these goods. These individuals resented the unchecked energy of the oligarchs and band together, often with the aid of heavily armed soldiers identified as hoplites, to place new leaders in charge.

These leaders had been known as tyrants. Some tyrants turned out to be as autocratic as the oligarchs they replaced, while others proved to be enlightened leaders. (Pheidon of Argos started an orderly system of measures and weights, for example, while Theagenes of Megara brought running water to his city.) Neverheless, their rule did not last: The classical time bought with it a number of political reforms which made the process referred to as demokratia, or perhaps “rule by the people.”

The colonial migrations of the Archaic time had an important impact on its literature and art. Greek styles were spread by them far and encouraged and wide folks from all over to get involved in the era's creative revolutions. The epic poet Homer, from Ionia, created his Odyssey and Iliad through the Archaic period. Sculptors created korai and kouroi, carefully proportioned man figures which served as memorials on the dead. Mathematicians and scientists made progress too: Anaximandros devised a concept of gravity; Xenophanes wrote about the discovery of his fossils; and his famous theorem was discovered by Pythagoras of Kroton.

The financial, political, artistic and technological advances of the Archaic time readied the Greek city states just for the monumental changes of the next several centuries.

Rome in Ancient Times

Rome's era as being a monarchy finished in 509 BC with the overthrow of its seventh king, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, who early historians portrayed as tyrannical and cruel, than his benevolent predecessors. A popular uprising was told to have arisen over the rape of a virtuous noblewoman, Lucretia, by the king's boy. Regardless of the…

Rome's era as being a monarchy finished in 509 BC with the overthrow of its seventh king, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, who early historians portrayed as tyrannical and cruel, than his benevolent predecessors. A popular uprising was told to have arisen over the rape of a virtuous noblewoman, Lucretia, by the king's boy. Regardless of the trigger, Rome spun from a monarchy right into a republic, a world derived from res publica, or perplex property of the individuals.

In 450 BC, the very first Roman law code was inscribed on twelve bronze tiles known as the 12 Tables and publicly shown inside the Roman Forum. These laws included problems of legal process, civil rights and property rights and also provided the foundation for all arriving Roman civil law. By around 300 BC, genuine political power in Rome was founded in the Senate, that at time included just members of patrician and prosperous plebeian families.

During the first republic, the Roman state increased exponentially in equal power and size. Although the Gauls sacked and used Rome in 390 BC, the Romans rebounded under the leadership of the army hero Camillus, at some point increasing control of the entire Italian peninsula by 264 BC Rome then deserved a number of wars referred to as the Punic Wars with Carthage, an important city state in northern Africa. The very first 2 Punic Wars finished with Rome in total command of Sicily, the western Mediterranean as well as a lot of Spain. In the Third Punic War (149-146 BC), the Romans shot and destroyed the town of Carthage and offered its survival dwellers into slavery, making a department of northern Africa a Roman province. While doing so, Rome also spread the influence of its east, defeating King Philip V of Macedonia in the Macedonian Wars and switching the kingdom of his into an additional Roman province.

Rome's intricate political institutions began to crumble under the mass of the increasing empire, ushering in an era of inner violence and turmoil. The gap between poor and rich widened as prosperous landowners drove tiny growers from public land, while access to jurisdictions was frequently restricted to the more privileged classes. Attempts to deal with these social problems, like the reform movements of Tiberius as well as Gaius Grachchus (in 133 BC as well as 123 22 BC, respectively) ended with the reformers' deaths at the hands of the opponents of their.

Gaius Marius, a commoner whose army prowess elevated him with the role of consul (for the very first of 6 terms) in hundred seven BC, was the very first of a number of warlords who 'rule rule Rome during the late republic. By ninety one BC, Marius was fighting against attacks by the opponents of his, such as his fellow basic Sulla, who emerged as army dictator around eighty two BC After Sulla retired, 1 of the former supporters of his, Pompey, briefly served as consul before waging good army campaigns against pirates in the forces and the Mediterranean of Mithridates in Asia. During this very same time, Marcus Tullius Cicero, elected consul in sixty three BC, famously defeated the conspiracy of the patrician Cataline and received a good reputation as among Rome's greatest orators.

When the victorious Pompey returned to Rome, an uneasy alliance known as the First Triumvirate with the wealth Marcus Licinius Crassus (who suppressed a slave rebellion led by Spartacus in seventy one BC) and yet another rising star in Roman politics: Gaius Julius Caesar was formed by him. After generating army glory in Spain, Caesar returned to Rome to vie for the consulship in fifty nine BC From the alliance of his with Crassus and Pompey, Caesar got the governorship of 3 wealthy provinces in Gaul start in fifty eight BC; he then set about conquering the remaining portion of the region for Rome.

After Pompey's wife Julia (Caesar's daughter) died in fifty four BC, and Crassus was killed in fight against Parthia (present day Iran) the following season, the triumvirate was broken. With old style Roman politics in condition, Pompey stepped in as lone consul in fifty three BC Caesar's army glory in Gaul and his increasing money had eclipsed Pompey's, and the latter teamed with his Senate friends to continually undersine Caesar. In forty nine BC, Caesar as well as 1 of his the Rubicon was crossed by legions, a river on the border between Italy and Cisalpine Gaul. Caesar's intrusion of Italy ignited a civil war from that he emerged as dictator of Rome for life in forty five BC

Less than a year later, Caesar was murdered by a team of the enemies of his (led by the republican nobles Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius). Consul Mark Antony and Caesar's great nephew and adopted heir, Octavian, joined forces to crush Cassius and Brutus and divided strength in Rome with ex consul Lepidus in what was referred to as the second Triumvirate. With Octavian top the western provinces, Antony the east, and Lepidus Africa, tensions created by thirty six BC and the triumvirate quickly dissolved. In thirty one BC, Octavian triumphed over the forces of Antony and Queen Cleopatra of Egypt (also rumored to be the onetime enthusiast of Julius Caesar) in the Battle of Actium. In the wake of the devastating defeat, suicide was committed by Cleopatra and Antony.

By twenty nine BC, Octavian was the single leader of Rome as well as all its provinces. In order to stay away from conference Caesar's fate, he made certain to make the position of his as absolute ruler acceptable in order to everyone by seemingly rebuilding the political institutions of the Roman republic while in fact retaining all true power for himself. In twenty seven BC, Octavian assumed the name of Augustus, getting the very first emperor of Rome.

Augustus' guideline restored morale in Rome after a century of corruption and discord and ushered in the famous pax Romana of two centuries of prosperity and peace. Various social reforms were instituted by him, he won many military victories and allowed Roman literature, art, religion and architecture to flourish. Augustus ruled for fifty six years, supported by the great army of his as well as by an expanding cult of devotion to the emperor. When he died, Augustus was elevated by the Senate to the condition of a god, starting a long running tradition of deification for widely used emperors.

Augustus' dynasty provided the unpopular Tiberius (14 37 AD), the unstable and bloodthirsty Caligula (37-41 Claudius and) (41-54), that was best remembered for his army's request of Britain. The series finished with Nero (54-68), which excesses drained the Roman treasury and then rejected in the downfall of his and eventual suicide. 4 emperors had taken the throne in the tumultuous 12 months after Nero's death; the 4th, Vespasian (69-79), as well as the successors of his, Domitian and Titus, were referred to as the Flavians; they attempted to temper the excesses of the Roman court, recover Senate authority; increase public welfare. Titus (79-81) earned his people's devotion with his handling of recovery efforts after the infamous eruption of Vesuvius, which damaged the towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum.

The reign of Nerva (96-98), who was selected by the Senate to be successful Domitian, began one golden era in Roman past, during what 4 emperors; Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, as well as Marcus Aurelius took the throne peacefully, succeeding each other by adoption, unlike genetic success. Trajan (98-117) broadened Rome's borders to probably the greatest extent in history with victories over the kingdoms of Dacia (now northwestern Romania) and also Parthia. His successor Hadrian (117-138) solidified the empire's frontiers and charged on his predecessor's job of establishing internal balance as well as instituting administrative reforms.

Under Antoninus Pius (138-161), Rome continued in prosperity and peace, although reign of Marcus Aurelius (161-180) was dominated by struggle, such as war against Armenia and Parthia and also the intrusion of Germanic tribes in the north. When Marcus fell sick and died close to the battlefield at Vindobona (Vienna), he broke with the tradition of non-hereditary succession and also named his 19-year-old child Commodus as the successor of his.

The incompetence and decadence of Commodus (180-192) welcomed the golden era of the Roman emperors to a disappointing end. The death of his at the hands of his minions sparked another time of civil war, from what Lucius Septimius Severus (193- 211) emerged victorious. During the final century Rome endured a cycle of near constant conflict. A total of twenty two emperors had taken the throne, a lot of them meeting terrible ends at the hands of identical soldiers that had powered them to drive. Meanwhile, risks from outdoors plagued the kingdom and depleted the riches of its, such as continuing aggression from Germans and Raids and Parthians by the Goths over the Aegean Sea.

The reign of Diocletian (284-305) temporarily restored prosperity and peace in Rome, but at a very high price to the unity of the kingdom. Diocletian divided energy into the so called tetrarchy (rule of four), revealing the title of his Augustus (emperor) with Maximian. A set of generals, Constantius and Galerius, were designated as chosen successors and the assistants of Maximian and Diocletian; Galerius and Diocletian ruled the eastern Roman Empire, while Constantius and Maximian got power in the west.

The balance of this particular system suffered greatly after Maximian and Diocletian retired from office. Constantine (the son of Constantius) emerged from the ensuing energy struggles as sole emperor of a reunified Rome in 324. He moved the Roman capital to the Greek town of Byzantium, that he renamed Constantinople. At the Council of Nicaea in 325, Christianity was made by Constantine (once an obscure Jewish sect) Rome's recognized religion.

Roman unity under Constantine proved illusory, as well as thirty years after the death of his western and eastern empires were once again divided. Despite its continuing fight against Persian forces, the eastern Roman Empire, later referred to as the Byzantine Empire, would remain mostly unchanged for many centuries to come. An entirely different story played out in the west, in which the kingdom was wracked by inner struggle along with risks from abroad, particularly from the Germanic tribes now developed within the empire's frontiers, and was continuing losing money because of continuous warfare.

Rome inevitably collapsed under the pounds of its own bloated empire, losing the provinces of its one by one: Britain around 410; northern Africa and Spain by 430. Attila and his tough Huns invaded Italy and Gaul around 450, more breaking the foundations of the kingdom. In September 476, control of the Roman army in Italy was won by a Germanic prince named Odovacar. After deposing the former western emperor, Romulus Augustus, Odovacar's soldiers proclaimed him king of Italy, getting an ignoble conclusion to the lengthy, tumultuous history of ancient Rome.

European Middle Ages

After the autumn of Rome, absolutely no single state or perhaps individuals were united by government that were living over the European continent. Instead, the Catholic Church evolved into a most effective institution of the medieval time. Kings, other leaders and queens derived much of the power of the heads from the alliances of souls…

After the autumn of Rome, absolutely no single state or perhaps individuals were united by government that were living over the European continent. Instead, the Catholic Church evolved into a most effective institution of the medieval time. Kings, other leaders and queens derived much of the power of the heads from the alliances of souls with and safety of the Church.

(In 800 CE, for instance, Pope Leo III named the Frankish king Charlemagne the Emperor of the Romans, the primarily since that empire 's autumn for more than 300 years before. With Time, Charlemagne's realm grew to become the Holy Roman Empire, one of various political entities in Europe who interests tended to arrange with all those of the Church.

Ordinary folks across Europe needed to tithe ten percent of the earnings each year on the Church; at exactly the same period, the Church was generally exempt from taxation. These policies aided it to amass a good deal of power and money.

Meanwhile, the Islamic community was growing even more amazing and bigger. After the Prophet Muhammad's demise in 632 CE, Muslim armies conquered huge portions of the Middle East, uniting them under the principle of one caliph. At the height of its, the medieval Islamic community was over 3 times larger than many of Christendom.

Under the caliphs, excellent cities like Cairo, Damascus and Baghdad fostered a vibrant intellectual plus cultural life. Poets, scientists as well as philosophers wrote a huge number of publications (on paper, a Chinese creation which had made its way into the Islamic community by the 8th century). Indian, Iranian, and Greek texts translated into scholars. Inventors devised technologies just like the pinhole camera, surgical instruments, windmills, soap, a beginning flying machine and also the system of numerals that today is used by us. And religious schools and mystics converted, translated as well as trained the Quran and various other scriptural texts to folks across the Middle East.

Toward the conclusion of the 11th century, the Catholic Church started to authorize Crusades, or military expeditions, to expel Muslim infidels from the Holy Land. Crusaders, who wore white crosses on their coats to promote the status of their souls, believed that the service of theors would ensure the remission of the sins of their minds and make sure that they can invest all eternity in Heaven. (They also got more worldly rewards, for example papal protection of their forgiveness and property of some types of loan payments.)

The Crusades started in 1095, when Pope Urban summoned a Christian army to battle the way of its to Jerusalem, along with continued on and off up until the conclusion of the 15th century. The Crusades was won by no one; Actually, a lot of a huge number of individuals from both sides lost the lives of their souls. They did make regular Catholics across Christendom seem like they'd a common objective, and they inspired waves of religious passion among individuals who might usually have experienced alienated from the recognized Church. They also discovered Crusaders to Islamic literature, science and technology, exposure which would have a long lasting impact on European intellectual existence.

An additional way to show devotion to the Church was to create grand cathedrals as well as various other ecclesiastical buildings like monasteries. Cathedrals were the largest structures in medieval Europe, as well as they might be discovered at the middle of cities and towns across the continent.

Between the 13th and 10th centuries, most European cathedrals were constructed in the Romanesque design. Romanesque cathedrals are fundamental and solid. They've rounded masonry arches and barrel vaults supporting the top, heavy stone walls and few windows. (Examples of Romanesque structure consist of the Porto Cathedral in Portugal and also the Speyer Cathedral in present day Germany.)

Around 1200, church builders started to adopt a new architectural design, referred to as the Gothic. Gothic structures, like the Abbey Church of Saint Denis in France as well as the rebuilt Canterbury Cathedral in England, have large stained glass windows, pointed arches and vaults (a technology created in the Islamic world), and spires and flying buttresses. In comparison to major Romanesque buildings, Gothic structure appears to be practicable weightless.Medieval religious art took other styles also. Mosaics and frescoes decorated church interiors, as well as devotional images of the Virgin Mary, Jesus and the saints were painted by artists.

Furthermore, before the creation of the printing press in the 15th century, even publications have been works of art. Craftsmen in monasteries (and later on in universities) produced illuminated manuscripts: handmade sacred and secular publications with colored drawings, yellow and other adornments and silver lettering. In the 12th century, urbanized booksellers started to promote less illuminated manuscripts, like books of time, other prayer books and psalters, to wealthy people.

In medieval Europe, rural living was governed by a method schools call feudalism. In a feudal culture, the king donated huge pieces of fiefs were called by land to noblemen and bishops. Landless peasants reported to as serfs did the majority of the job on the fiefs: They placed and harvested plants and provided the majority of the produce on the landowner. In exchange for the labor of theirs, they had been allowed to dwell on the land. They were also promised shelter in case of adverse invasion.

During the 11th century, nonetheless, feudal life started to change. Agricultural innovations like the large plow and three field crop rotation made farming better and effective, therefore fewer farm workers have been needed, but because of the expanded and enhanced food source, the population increased. As a result, many people were drawn to cities and towns. Meanwhile, the Crusades had enhanced trade routes to the East and given Europeans a sample for imported foods including wine, luxurious textiles and olive oil. As the business economy created, port cities in certain thrived. By 1300, there have been some fifteen cities in Europe having a population of over 50,000.

In these cities, a brand new era was born: the Renaissance. The Renaissance was a time of excellent intellectual and financial change, but it was not a complete rebirth: It's the roots of it in the world of the Middle Ages.

The Cruel Tughluq Dynasty Ruler – Muhammad Bin Tughluq

Many of us are not aware of some intriguing facts about Indian history. Let's take a look at history of Tughlaq dynasty and Muhammad bin Tughluq to discover some of them. The Tughluq dynasty governed the Delhi sultanate from 1320 to 1413 and was founded by Ghazi Malik aka. Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq. Muhammad bin Tughluq…

Many of us are not aware of some intriguing facts about Indian history. Let's take a look at history of Tughlaq dynasty and Muhammad bin Tughluq to discover some of them.

The Tughluq dynasty governed the Delhi sultanate from 1320 to 1413 and was founded by Ghazi Malik aka. Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq. Muhammad bin Tughluq was the most successful ruler of this dynasty who acquired a lot of land from 1330 and 1335. Although he was successful in expanding his empire, Tughlaq dynasty history was characterized by his tortures and cruelty leading to rebellions and disintegration after 1335 AD.

Before the Tughlaqs, the Khalji dynasty had control over the Delhi Sultanate. Khilji dynasty's governor Khusro Khan and Malik Kafur looted non-Muslim kingdoms for Alauddin Khalji. Alauddin Khalji died in 1316 leading to political instability. Ghazi Malik was a governor under the Khiljis for Punjab. He killed Khusro Khan to begin the Tughlaq dynasty.

Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq built Tughlakabad to protect his men from Mongol attacks. He rewarded those who supported him and punished those who had supported Khusro Khan. He lowered taxes on Muslims and raised the same for Hindus.

In 1321, Ghiyasuddin asked his eldest son Muhammad bin Tughlaq to attack Arangal and Tilang. He failed in his first attempt but succeeded 4 months later with the help of a stronger army. Arangal was renamed as Sultanpur; the complete state treasury was looted.

The Muslim leader in Lukhnauti assisted Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq to attack Shamsuddin Firoz Shah in 1324-1325 AD and expand into Bengal. Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq handed over Delhi to Muhammad bin Tughlaq and himself led his army to Lukhnauti and won the battle. One of the cruelest chapters of his history has been the fact that he killed his father Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq and brother Mahmud Khan in 1325 AD when they were returning back after the same contract.

In his reign of 26 years, Muhammad attacked Malwa, Gujarat, Mahratta, Tilang, Kampila, Dhur-samundar etc. He kept looting non-Muslim kingdoms but could not control emerging discontent and revolts.

He also imposed a 10 times higher land tax on non-Muslims living in fertile lands of Ganga and Yamuna. They were also asked to pay crop taxes by handing over half or more of their harvests. Hindu farmers stopped farming and the subcontinent was affected by famines at the same time. Muhammad bin Tughlaq returned to more violence and mass punishments. He also executed other sections of the Muslim communities like Shia, Sufis etc.

He then decided to move his capital from Delhi to Deogiri and renamed it as Daulatabad. People were forced to migrate and those who refused were killed. Daulatabad did not have enough drinking water and the capital was returned back to Delhi.

Revolts against Muhammad bin Tughlaq began in 1327 and the Sultanate started reducing in size after 1335. The Vijayanagara Empire did not allow the Delhi Sultanate to expand in southern India. Many other regions declared independence from Muhammad bin Tughlaq as well.

The state treasury had no precious metal coins after Tughlaq's expansive war campaigns. Coins of Tughlaq dynasty started getting made using base metals with a face value of silver coins. People started minting fake coins of their own leading to an economic disaster. This was followed by 10 years of famines leading to several deaths.

Muhammad bin Tughlaq also tried to attack Khurasan, Irak and China but in vain. People who could not pay taxes were executed. He died in March 1351 while trying to attack people who rebelled against him in Sindh and Gujarat.

Some historians think that he wanted to forcefully inflict Islamic practices while others thought that he was insane. By this time, the Delhi Sultanate lost its territories and covered only the Vindhya range in central India.

The Rosicrucian Order and Its Teaching

There are many references available today for anyone who wants to learn more on the esoteric teachings and occultism. When you want to learn about these categories, then the term Rosicrucian is not a new word. This is an ancient society that ran in secret and it was well devoted to studying all the occult…

There are many references available today for anyone who wants to learn more on the esoteric teachings and occultism. When you want to learn about these categories, then the term Rosicrucian is not a new word. This is an ancient society that ran in secret and it was well devoted to studying all the occult doctrines as well as the manifestation of different occult powers.

If you have an interest in this topic, you may not be able to get as much information as you would like. If you try to dig for more information, you may actually find yourself defeated and totally baffled.

There are many frauds today where one is required to part with a fee to be admitted to the original order. It is important to note that there has never been any real occult order that is sanctioned by Rosicrucians that requires payment of fees. Then true ones do not have formal organizations but are held by ties they have through common interests in the esoteric and occult studies. They are also held together by the common acceptance of some fundamental principles of knowledge and belief.


Rosicrucian is an order that is not organized. It has members from all different walks of life and also from, all the countries in the world. As such, these members never announce themselves as being Rosicrucians. Even if you pay a fee, there is no guarantee that you will be granted admission. The only way that you can be admitted is if any three members who have a good standing and those who have been members for a specified period recommend you. They need to be members that enjoy some proficiency in the attainment of esoteric knowledge and demonstration of some principles that they have been able to discover under the direction of some adepts who are higher ranked with arcane wisdom.

The members of this body are quite prominent in the councils within the occult societies and organizations all over the world. These people are within the world population and they keep the truth flame alive within them.

There are also many members of the Rosicrucian order who are quite prominent within the scientific and the philosophical circles. Some of them are also men that are very prominent in some large business affairs and in the professional world as well as statesmanship rankings.

There are also others who are within some of the most prominent movements like labor or such activities. Others are councils in churches and leaders in the masonry and such secret societies. In all the circles, they are able to exert a very powerful influence in a good way.

Brothers of Rosy Cross

The interest we see today in the teachings of the Rosicrucians started in the 17th century. The Brothers of the Rosy Cross was just a rumor back then, and there were secret meeting places that the public never really knew about. This is a society that was attacked by different authorities while there were still others who defended it very vigorously. The teachings, however, have been seen to serve a good purpose in the lives of many.

The Challenge of Language in Lorenzo Ghiberti’s Commentaries

Lorenzo Ghiberti's Commentaries believed to have been published c. 1455, marks the first known occasion of an artist writing about himself and his worIn doing so, Ghiberti was faced with the challenge of describing his work in words that conveyed his intentions to the audience who were to read the Commentaries. To assist Ghiberti in…

Lorenzo Ghiberti's Commentaries believed to have been published c. 1455, marks the first known occasion of an artist writing about himself and his worIn doing so, Ghiberti was faced with the challenge of describing his work in words that conveyed his intentions to the audience who were to read the Commentaries. To assist Ghiberti in developing his language he looked to ancient Rome for guidance, often swapping texts by Cicero and Virgil with humanist schools to improve his learning. Large sections of books by Pliny and Vitruvius make up the first book in Ghiberti's Commentaries, demonstrating that he could read books in Latin, despite making errors in his translations. Pliny's Natural History is often credited with creating the framework for the discussion of the history of art. Although, he was not alone in discussing painting and sculpture as the 1st century BC writings of Dionysius of Halicarnassus reveal comparators of sculptors to each other and orators using adjectives to draw the similarities and contrast the differences between them. This idea of ​​comparing rhetoric to images is found in Quintilian's Institutes of Oratory, published after Pliny the Elder in the late 1st century AD, who draws clear comparisons between painting, sculpture and rhetoric. Quintilian uses language that describes the works of sculptors as 'rather stiff,' less rigid 'and' softer. The Renaissance, as we perceive it in the twenty-first century, is the rebirth of antiquity and in early Renaissance Italy, the vocabulary used in ancient Greece and Rome about painting and sculpture is seen emerging in the contemporary text.

At the beginning of the Quattrocento, there was growing interest in biographies fueled by the translations of Plutarch's Parallel Lives by Leonardo Bruni and Jacopo Angeli. In the early years of the fifteenth century Bruni's publication on the Lives of Petarch and Dante, which was written in the vernacular and therefore accessible to a wider audience. Bruni says in his Life of Dante that the vernacular had “its esteem and merit,” “its perfection and its sound, and its polished and learned diction”.

Simultaneously, there was the increased publication of literature that focused more intentionally on painting, artists and sculptors. Cennino Cennini published his title, The Craftsman's Handbook, in the late 1390s, followed by Leon Battista Alberti's, On Painting, in 1435, giving Ghiberti further resources produced in his own time and using vocabulary that would have been more familiar to him. Ten years after Alberti published On Painting, Ghiberti was to start writing his Commentaries drawing on this rich vein of literature. Unfortunately, there is no extant copy of the original Commentaries as written by Ghiberti. What survives are three books of the Commentaries that were made by a later copyist. Not only is this problematic, so is the language of the text that is being analyzed and discussed today, as it is a translation into another language; English.

The academies at the Courtauld Institute of Art acknowledge that the copy contains many inaccuracies, although it is stated that is impossible to determine how much of the inaccuracy and misunderstanding is down to the copyist and how much is down to Ghiberti himself. The acknowledgment of Ghiberti's mistakes in translating from the Latin and the difficulties he has made in translating this language into the vernacular, holds true. However, the section under consideration is Ghiberti writing on his works, the doors that became known as the Gates of Paradise, and there before there was no requirement for Ghiberti to translate from Latin. Although, the translation into English does pose problems as Lara Broeke acknowledges in her translation of Cennini's The Craftsman's Handbook: “as I proceeded with my work I became more and more aware that the English which I was producing did not reflect the Italian that I was transcribing “. Consequently, it is prudent to refer to the available Italian text when considering the English translation, as different translations translation give rise to different meanings which obscure the original meaning. The Courtauld Institute translates “Condussi detta opera con grandissima dilegentia e con grandissimo amore” into “I carried out the work with the greatest zeal and love”. Gilbert translates the same sentence to “I carried out the work with the greatest degree of religiosity and the greatest love” which seems more in keeping with the original Italian. By the Courtauld removing 'greatest' before 'love,' there is potential to infer that Ghiberti carried out the work with greater diplomacy / zeal than he did love. More importantly, the differential English translations of 'dilegentia' are problematic as in English 'zeal' means 'fervent or enthusiastic devotion, often extreme or fanatical in nature, as to a religious movement, political cause, ideal, or aspiration' and takes its origin from the Late Latin, 'zelus'. 'Diligence' means' steady and careful application; proper attention or care “and comes from the Latin 'dilegentia' meaning 'care, attentiveness'.

'Diligentia' was used by Quintilian as part of his vocabulary to describe facets of the crafted word and the crafted image, creating a link to antiquity that was lauded by Ghiberti's contemporaries, giving Ghiberti's work enriched gravitas.The Gilbert translation is closer to the intended meaning in Italian. Having examined the difficulties inherent in working with historical text that has been filtered through copyists and translators, what does Ghiberti present in the text under exploration?

Having explained his theories of art in the first book of his Commentaries which a great artist and sculptor must imbue in his works, Ghiberti gives us his account of various artists from the Trecento onwards that he admires. He does this using terms such as 'composition' and 'relief' in his account on Ambrogio Lorenzetti, arriving with himself and the works that he underook from 1419, including the section of text under review on the third set of doors for Florence's baptistery. In the main, Ghiberti details a visual description of the doors. The formal aspects are stated regarding some panels (ten) and their size (two and a half feet square), going on to detail that the source of the narratives displayed was taken from the stories of the Old Testament. A description of the inner and outer friezes is given. The inner has twenty-four figures, while the outer contains leaves, birds and animals. Scattered through this account are words which Ghiberti uses to describe the emotions of the characters playing their part in the narrative cycle he has created. Ghiberti uses 'astonished' to describe how the people felt who were waiting for Moses to return with the tablets from the mountain (the Ten Commandments). This gives the reader an idea of ​​the facial expressions and the emotion that Ghiberti was chasing to portray in these characters rendered in cold bronze. This feels like Ghiberti is searching for the correct words to describe what he wanted viewers of this panel to understand about the narrative within the panel once he has died. Ghiberti also gives us his overarching approach to the production of this set of doors, and in this aspect of his treatment, the link to Alberti's On Painting is pronounced.

Ghiberti writes of seeking to 'imitate nature … with all the outlines … [and] with composition rich with many figures' which hark back to Pliny's Natural History where Pliny praises Nature's craftsmanship in the creation of insects and her invention [ingenium ] in providing insects with a sting-in-the-tail. Cennini stipulates that an artist must always copy from Life and practice constantly. Likewise, Alberti states he will explain 'the art of painting from the basic principles of nature' in the opening to On Painting ,. Writing in further pages that “The fundamental principle will be that all steps of learning will be taken from Nature: the means of perfecting our art will be found in diligence, study and application”. Ghiberti mirrors these statements in his approach to the creation of the door panels. Here, there is clear instruction from fellow Quattrocento artists that Nature is the goal for artists to replicate from literature written just prior to, and during, Ghiberti's production of the doors, and at least a decade before Ghiberti acknowledges that this was in his intent relating the doors when he writes of them in his Commentaries. Ghiberti goes further in adopting the spirit of Alberti's instruction by using the exact phraseology to describe the degree of effort he applied as 'most diligent'. 'Diligent' traces its use back to Quintilian, through Alberti who regards the display of 'diligence' as necessary for those who want their work to be 'pleasant and acceptable to posterity' which reveals much of Ghiberti's motivation for using this word to describe his efforts. Ghiberti further describes his approach by stating that the work has been “finished with every skill and proportion and talent.” The use of 'proportion' introduces the concept of perspective, relief and composition.

Ghiberti describes aspects of his overarching approach to the execution of the third set of doors. He reiterates the 'outlines he could produce' and 'with fine compositions' leading him on to speak of the various degrees of relief he used to create a sense of three-dimensionality, just as the eye would see them. Carey purports that Ghiberti regards the mastery of linear perspective as the foundation for structuring pictorial narrative one of the greatest challenges an artist faced in the Quattrocento. Ghiberti could reference Cennini and Alberti who both provided guidelines on relief, and certainly, Alberti provides detailed guidelines to create perspective and three dimensionality on a picture plane. In Alberti's process towards the rendering of images as close to Nature as possible, he breaks down the component parts to; outline, composition and the reception of light. This vocabulary is used by Ghiberti in his description of the doors, drawing on Alberti's guidelines in his quest such that graceful movements are created. Krauthinere holds that Ghiberti remained persuasive through his gentleness in the face of demands by Cosimo de 'Medici's demands for more monumental work. Through Ghiberti's text, he does not appear to have employed a broad vocabulary to describe his work. Instead, he draws on the vocabulary of artists and orators who have gone before him. Baxandall states that the Quattrocento restricted vocabulary that the Quattrocento had to describe art, limited to no more than forty words. How did this vocabulary expand in the years after Ghiberti's death?

In Cristoforo Landino's commentary of Dante's The Divine Comedy, Landino used vocabulary that thought to give a greater sense of the style of artists and the work they produced. Landino referred to terms such as 'aria', 'scorci' and 'prompto' which he seeks to describe through examples, a preferred approach in literature. However, Landino includes terms already used, such as 'relief' and 'ornato' where he again provides a more detailed description of what they mean when applied to art. Terms such as 'aria' had a history of application to the arts, having been used by Domenico da Piacenza in his treatise on dancing to describe aspects of dance.Ghiberti did not use this term in his Commentary, even though the Domenico da Piacenza's treatise was published in 1450. Perhaps, Ghiberti had not seen this work to employ this vocabulary. Ghiberti's Commentary was referenced by a later artist, Giorgio Vasari, in his famous lives of the Artists, to help him create the narrative around Ghiberti that he desired. A Florentine man who was key to the evolution of art that emerged with the rebirth of antiquity on its projection towards the culmination of all Vasari believed art could become, embodied in Michelangelo. What Ghiberti set out to achieve in writing his Commentary he has achieved – being lauded and accredited for posterity.