During the so called “Greek Dark Ages” before the Archaic time, people lived spread through Greece in small farming villages. As they grow larger, these villas started to develop. Some built walls. Most made a marketplace (an agora) along with a local community meeting place. Governments were developed by them and structured their people based on some kind of set or constitution of laws. Armies were raised by them and collected taxes. And every single one of those city states (known as poleis) was believed to be protected by a specific god or perhaps goddess, to who the people of the polis owed a lot of reverence, sacrifice. and respect (Athens's deity was Athena, for example; as was Sparta's.)
Although their citizens had in typical what Herodotus named “the exact same inventory as well as the same speech, our shared temples of religious rituals and the gods, our similar customs,” every Greek city state was different. The largest, Sparta, controlled approximately 300 square kilometers of territory; probably the smallest had only several 100 people. Neverheless, by the dawn of the Archaic time in the seventh century BC, the city states had developed a variety of common characteristics. They each had economies that were based on farming, not trade. For this reason, acreage was each city-state's most precious resource. Moreover, many had overthrown their basileus, or hereditary kings, and had been ruled by a few of wealthy aristocrats.
These folks monopolized political power. (For instance, they refused to allow ordinary folks serve on assemblies or councils) Additionally, they are monopolized perfect farmland, as well as a few even advertised being descended from the gods. Because “the poor with the wives of minds and kids were enslaved to the rich as well as had no political rights,” Aristotle stated, “there was a struggle between the people and the nobles for much time.”
Emigration was one of the ways to relieve several of this tension. Land was the foremost source of money in the city states; it had also been, clearly, in supply that is finite. The strain of population growth pushed numerous males at bay from their house poleis and into sparsely populated places around Greece and also the Aegean. Between 750 BC as well as 600 BC, Greek colonies sprang up through the Mediterranean to Asia Minor, from North Africa on the coastline of the Black Sea. By the conclusion of the seventh century BC, there have been over 1,500 colonial poleis.
All these poleis was an impartial city state. This way, the colonies of the Archaic time were completely different from other colonies we're acquainted with. The individuals that lived there were not ruled by or perplexed bound to the city states from what they came. The brand new poleis were self-sufficient and self-governing.
As time passed plus their populations large, a lot of these agricultural city states began to produce consumer products like pottery, cloth, metalwork and wine. Some folks – usually not members of the old aristocracy – became very wealthy by trade in these goods. These individuals resented the unchecked energy of the oligarchs and band together, often with the aid of heavily armed soldiers identified as hoplites, to place new leaders in charge.
These leaders had been known as tyrants. Some tyrants turned out to be as autocratic as the oligarchs they replaced, while others proved to be enlightened leaders. (Pheidon of Argos started an orderly system of measures and weights, for example, while Theagenes of Megara brought running water to his city.) Neverheless, their rule did not last: The classical time bought with it a number of political reforms which made the process referred to as demokratia, or perhaps “rule by the people.”
The colonial migrations of the Archaic time had an important impact on its literature and art. Greek styles were spread by them far and encouraged and wide folks from all over to get involved in the era's creative revolutions. The epic poet Homer, from Ionia, created his Odyssey and Iliad through the Archaic period. Sculptors created korai and kouroi, carefully proportioned man figures which served as memorials on the dead. Mathematicians and scientists made progress too: Anaximandros devised a concept of gravity; Xenophanes wrote about the discovery of his fossils; and his famous theorem was discovered by Pythagoras of Kroton.
The financial, political, artistic and technological advances of the Archaic time readied the Greek city states just for the monumental changes of the next several centuries.