The Roman Republican and Empire Building

The complete story of Rome must take into account the result of empire-building for the Roman Republic. As the Romans grew more comfortable with their form of government, and the aristocrats more assured of their preeminence and place in public rule, the ancient Roman Republic turned its eye toward the surrounding territories. Empire-building, or the…

The complete story of Rome must take into account the result of empire-building for the Roman Republic. As the Romans grew more comfortable with their form of government, and the aristocrats more assured of their preeminence and place in public rule, the ancient Roman Republic turned its eye toward the surrounding territories.

Empire-building, or the build-up of Roman controlled lands and political control was the main engine of the expanding republic. As the Roman rulers moved Rome from republic to empire, they were intent on absorbing the surrounding states, countries and cultures into the main fabric of Roman life by stamping them with the Roman seal. Citizenship was granted in a limited fashion, of course, but most Italians were afforded this benefit. The other 'foreigners' were able to enjoy the benefits of Romans. They greatly benefited from the relative peace and prosperity generated by the Roman authority and way of life.

Essentially, by 146 BC the Roman Republic dominated most of the Mediterranean lands. The growth of the Roman Empire unfolded in three separate stages. Firstly, the Roman Republic united Italy. Secondly, the Roman defeat of Carthage. This made Rome ruler of the western Mediterranean as well. Finally, the Hellenist's fell to Roman rule. This last step was significant because of the new found portfolio to Greek thought and culture which greatly influenced the Roman Empire and colored the story of Rome.

As historian, Bamber Gascoigne, notes of the newly Romanized territories, in “HistoryWorld.net”, “they became stabilized and properly defended. Professional careers are now possible in the army (enrollments sign on for sixty years, later increased to twenty) and in the civil service. Improved roads make it easier to keep in close touch with distant parts of the Roman world, and to move troops where they are needed. structure. ” (Gascoinge)

Additionally, as the rulers expanded Rome from republic to empire, the ancient Roman Republic became increasingly exposed to, familiarize with and sympathetic to the Greek systems of law as well. While the law was developing, so was the economics and commerce of the Romans. Tax collecting and trade were booming, and much of the wealth flow back into Rome itself.

All in all, the empire-building, or empire-expansion of the Romans was mutually beneficial to Rome and those subjugated by their rule. From the Roman vantage point, through the growth of the Roman Empire, they acted in the best interests of Rome and the surrounding regions. Clearly, not all of those under Roman rule were as impressed with their 'new' way of life, but the effects of the expansion of the Roman Republic were known and tangible to all.

Works Cited:

Gascoigne, Bamber. History World. 2001. http://www.historyworld.net

The Republican Period of Ancient Rome

A friend once asked me if I knew what kind of government and society Rome had in the Republican Period? We were talking about politics and he wanted to school me on some of the finer points of history. He knew many facts about ancient Rome, but he was purposeful in his brief lesson. It…

A friend once asked me if I knew what kind of government and society Rome had in the Republican Period? We were talking about politics and he wanted to school me on some of the finer points of history. He knew many facts about ancient Rome, but he was purposeful in his brief lesson. It was a friendly discussion and I learned a lot. What I found was that the Republican Period spanned almost 500 years in Ancient Rome, from about 509 BC to the time of the first Roman emperor in 27 BC Both the government and the society of Republican Rome were marked by their practical, not their idealistic, theoretical approach to life. This is in contrast to the Hellenist approach to life and government which emphasized lofty philosophies and idealistic views.

With the overthrow of the Etruscan king in 509 BC, Rome became Republican Roman. Initially, the republic was dominated by the patricians, or aristocratic leaders, who happened to be of the 'proper' lineage. There were two annually elected consuls, the Centuriate Assembly and the Senate. Both were aided by less influential elected magistrates and administrators. The commoners (plebeians) sought greater involvement in the political process and societal equality.

Occasionally, in the early fifth century, the plebeians formed the Tribal Assembly, and as a result of their influence, in 450 BC, the first Roman code of law was written. These first Roman laws were called the Twelve Tables. Despite these laws cave the commoners additional rights, the aristocrats still controlled the government. The government and the law became increasingly secularized, and the Roman constitution was based more on civic needs than on religious traditions. This constitution naturally evolved as the civic needs of the populated were addressed. As religious thought lost its grasp on the minds of the Romans, jurists (lawyers) replaced religious practices, and intellect and common wisdom gained the ascendancy.

Of note among Republican Roman's' casted playwrights are Platus, (c. 254 – 184 BC), and Terence (c. 185-159 BC), who wrote, “I am a man, I consider nothing that is human alien to me, “in his play” Heauton Timorumenos “. Just as loved were the poets, Catullus (BC 84 BC – 54 BC) and Lucretius (c. 96-55 BC), and Ennius (c. 239-169 BC), considered the founder of Roman literature.

Two important undertones of the culture in ancient Rome were the concept of seriousness, and the philosophy of Stoicism. Gravitas, the Latin word for seriousness is understood to mean being sober, or serious in one's affairs. This, thought the Romans, allowed them to successfully navigate and be fruitful in public affairs. Traditional religion, politics, and public service all were part of seriousness, and the model citizen was learned and active in all three arenas. Undoubtedly, jovial celebrations were a part of Republican Rome, but one of conventional public image was that of seriousness. Pragmatism, not idealistic, philosophical thought was the predominant mindset of the Roman.

Stoicism, a Greek concept, had as its goal a life lived in harmony with the standards of uprightness, or virtue which could be clearly seen in nature. The Stoic virtues were a perfect complement to the over-arching concept of Roman seriousness, and made Stoicism the most influential philosophy in the Republic Period.

Additionally, a major contributor to the culture in ancient Rome was the pantheon of Roman gods. Interestingly enough, these mirrored the major Greek gods. There was, for example, Jupiter (equivalent to Zeus) who was the greatest god and was believed to watch over the city and protect the people. Apollo, the God of the Sun, who shared the same Greek name, and Venus (Aphrodite in Greek), the Goddess of Love, who was later depicted in the famous painting, “The Birth of Venus,” by the Italian painter, Sandro Botticelli. As with the Greeks, these, and numerous other gods and legends made their way into almost every aspect of culture in ancient Rome. The impact of the Romans' consideration for and treatment of these many gods during this Republican Period can not be understated.

Together, the government and society of late Republican Rome and empire advanced and developed. The citizens enjoyed technological advances while at the same time developing the concept known today as the rule of law. The Romans' common sense served them well, as they expanded their power and influence to conquer and absorb other cultures and cities into that of Rome. As we've seen in this brief article, studying the politics of ancient Rome and the culture in ancient Rome is quite instructive for any student of politics.

Functions Confer at the Jungian Round Table

Dream alert concern a personality type I have been interested in Jung's typology system for several years now, but only rarely do I dream explicitly about personality types! A few days ago, I woke up trying to remember: did the ENFP have to be eliminated? I was not sure which type had been spoken of…

Dream alert concern a personality type

I have been interested in Jung's typology system for several years now, but only rarely do I dream explicitly about personality types! A few days ago, I woke up trying to remember: did the ENFP have to be eliminated? I was not sure which type had been spoken of in the dream, but I was certain that the committee in my dream had agreed to dispose of a young girl's teacher.

In this Conference Table dream scene, adults are separated around a long conference table. A woman, the principal character or observer in this scene, is concerned about her daughter's infatuation with her teacher. Seeing that she is in doubt about this situation, the man sitting opposite from her is moved to provide her with two quotes from materials written by the teacher. He reads these passage out loud and heatedly conveys that the teacher is a pervert and a child abuser!

The man sitting at the far right of the table takes the initiative and hands a gun over to the one sitting two spaces away from him. “The ENFP must be eliminated,” he says (or some other type). The fellow receiving the gun hands money over to the first one in order to make this look like a purchase; His intent here is to exonerate the other one from any blame for the crime. He says “Here, take twenty dollars,” but the paper bill that he hands over is purple, which is the color of a ten dollar bill in our Canadian currency.

I want to begin the dream analysis with the scene that preceded this one, but here I wish to pause in order to provide the reader with the context for this dream.

Dream context

As you may have guessed already, I am quite partial to Jung and I must confess that this has led me at times to fantasize that this feeling might be reciprocal. At one period in my life, I was having dreams that contained multiple elements that had their counterparts in the following day's readings from Jung's writings, and these elements were even reaffirmed by synchronistic events. For example, I would dream about a honey comb and encounter one in the next day's reading; then I would run into the comb-shaped reminder of a hornet's nest on the sidewalk during my two minute walk from my apartment to the school that I was attending.

The next day, waking up concerned about a missing blue in a disintegrating dream rainbow, I would feel compelled to read about color in a dictionary and fall upon an illustration of a color wheel that falsified the cyan, making it look green instead of blue ( I was positive about this, because I was studying additive and subtractive colors at the time). Then the next page in Jung's writing would have about his concern for the missing blue element in an illustration. A single disintegrating cloud, in the shape of a rainbow, would then mock a clear blue sky during that same day, etc. These synchronicities encouraged a sort of magical thinking in me that was not, shall we say, entirely grounded in reality. I found it amusing to entertain the poetic notification of a disembodied Jung fishing for like-minded souls in the sea of ​​our dreams and pulling us toward him whenever he felt a bite.

My exaggerated fondness for Jung, which I have never met, was brought to mind on the day prioring the dream that we are analyzing here, while reading Dr. Mario Jacoby's contribution in a book entitled Jungian Analysts: Their Visions and Vulnerabilities. Dr. Jacoby writes quite frankly about a period during which he struggled between extreme admiration for his teacher and bouts during which he had to “doubt the whole endeavor and consider Jungianism a grandiose illusion.” I was not familiar with the term “inflation” that he used to describe his exaggerated enthusiasm, but the context led me to approximate its meaning with the more familiar word “infatuation”, a term that was then taken up by the dream. It is important to note also that Dr. Jacoby spoke of the atmosphere at the Institute when Jung was quite agreed, saying that his admirers thought of him as “a wise, old mana-personality living in a mysterious tower somewhere in the woods.”

Disposition of the functions in the first scene

In the Night School dream scene, I have stopped by the side of the road in the country and I am washing my hands at the edge of the woods. There is a secret camping area here. Now a police car is here, and a school bus has parked at 90 degrees across the road to let the children off. The policeman requests the driver to meet with him at 1:00 and they agree to this. He does not bother me and I go back to my car.

This scene was followed by the Conference Table scene related above, and then I woke up with the warning that “the ENFP must be eliminated” still resonating in my head. I could not recall exactly which type had been mentioned in the dream, but my curiosity was definitely aroused and my first impulse was to verify if the dream material could be linked to a particular type.

In the Night School scene, there were conveniently four energy groups that I could distinguish, and this is how I have classified them, assigning one of the four Jungian functions (Thinking, Feeling, Sensing, and Intuition) to each of them:

  • Intuition appears as the main character, the woman who has just finished exploring the woods. The woods are far reaching and mysterious, and the context of the dream supports the idea that the woods are related to Jung, who is sometimes referred to as a visionary. In waking life, I am cognisant of the fact that Intuition was one of his strong functions. In this scene, the stream of consciousness seems to emanate from this female character so I shall consider this introverted Intuition to be the dominant function.
  • The car connected with this character could easily be Intuition's polar opposite, extraverted Sensing, in the position of inferior function: Sensing because the vehicle is on a scenic route, extraverted because of the rising sun (as opposed to the darkness of the woods explored by the introverted Intuition function), and inferior because the vehicle is parked and empty.
  • In the dream, there are children inside of the bus, making the bus an expression of introverted Feeling: it deals with people, but internally. The unconventional way that the bus has shown originality, something that is typical for an introverted function.
  • The policeman, representing law and order, may be assigned the logical Thinking function. The flashing police lights and the respect for tradition and conventional values ​​indicate that in this case we are dealing with extraversion.

If I understand Jung's typology system correctly, the disposition of the four functions in this Night School dream scene, with the introverted and extraverted polarities as noted above, finds a match in the INTJ personality profile. Interestingly, this is exactly the type that I obtained in my most recent personality test.

New arrangement of the functions

In the following scene, the Conference Table scene, there are again four active participants and they are communicating in pairs, but the INTJ formation seems to have broken up. Let's see if there is a recognizable type in this scene suddenheless.

  • The Thinking function now appears as the main seat of consciousness, whereas formerly Intuition was dominant. Note that the dominant function is once again manifesting with my own gender, in the form of the woman for which the meeting has been called. She does not speak but ponders things internally, so we are once again dealing with an introverted type.
  • The man who is passing judgment on the teacher and really getting along himself, in the telltale fashion that our inferior function often does in waking life, is definitely the extraverted Feeling counterpart of the first function.
  • Without any hesitation, the man on the right quickly appraises the situation, at once zooming in on the problem and its drastic solution. I see him as the extraverted Intuition function.
  • In waking life, when Intuition is extraverted, then the Sensing function should be introverted, and if the same dynamic is reputed in this dream scene, that role would fall on the last active character, the person receiving the gun. But what would be the point in choosing an introverted function to accomplish an outbound deed, one might ask? The key factor to notice in this case is the fact that this complacent cooperator is focused on the meaning that he attaches to the goods that are being exchanged. His thoughts about the objects supersede the objects themselves. The docile man receiving the gun then represents the introverted Sensing function.

Further observations

In the Conference Table scene, while the daytime personality type has been dismantled, much more is disclosed. The arrangement of the characters around a conference table suggests that each function is aware of all of the others, and this does seem to be the case:

  • The sentence pronounced by the man on the right indicates that the slandering manifesto coming from the excited Feeling function has had quite an impact on the Intuition function.
  • The introverted Thinking function (mother) is concerned with an image of her daughter, a thought that had been subtly brought to its attention by the Feeling function in the previous scene. By parking the school bus sideways, the Feeling function was blocking traffic and forcing the others to stop and consider their actions. It appeared to be saying “Would you want your own child to attend such an unofficial school?” Or otherwise, “Is your attraction to this teacher not a bit childish and irregular?” Now, the main character has begun integrating the Feeling function's view of the situation.
  • The Sensing function (the man receiving the gun) is aware of the Intuition function's concern about being blamed; This element was more covert in the first scene and only hinted at by the washing of hands.
  • In waking life, Sensing is the fourth or inferior function, the one that Marie-Louise Von Franz calls the unlocked door, and therefore the one that can easily tap into unconscious material. Perhaps this function has understood before any of us that the injunction pronounced by the Intuition function to “eliminate” a specific type should be understood symbolically: it is purely type labels that need to be eliminated. The ten dollar bill offered in the dream is exactly half of the amount stated: this might be the Sensing function's way of suggesting to take a middle path and not to focus on personality types so much.

In the final scene, the functions have completely reversed their original polarities: those that were extraverted are now introverted, and vice versa. Note also that the degree of exchange between the functions has intensified dramatically. What was merely hinted at in the first scene or known only to one function has now become shared knowledge.

You will recall that in the Night School dream scene, the functions were following the pattern of my INTJ personality type. There is nothing shocking about the scene, nor is there much work being done. Were it to stand alone, the Night School scene would not be very instructive, if you will pardon the pun.

Conclusion

When the functions manifest in a dream as characters or objects that express the introverted and extraverted attributes that are usual for those functions in waking life, or in other words, when they constellation to form the dreamer's usual personality type, the dream is probably a reflection of the person's conscious waking attitude.

In contrast, when the functions masquerade as characters with atypical attitudes, this reversal of polarity appears to facilitate the exchange of information between them. Knowledge available only to the reliably unconscious third and fourth functions during the waking state can then be transferred during the dream to the upper functions, and this is when the real dream work occurs.

How a Famous Hero Changed the Mindset of the World and the Future Generation

In the history of the human race, there have been significant people and events that, in their own way, made great contributions which the world is grateful for today. As the social behavior and external factors evolve, humankind has developed a certain kind of adaptation, a certain kind of development. However, there are some circumstances…

In the history of the human race, there have been significant people and events that, in their own way, made great contributions which the world is grateful for today. As the social behavior and external factors evolve, humankind has developed a certain kind of adaptation, a certain kind of development. However, there are some circumstances where there is a need for greater impact, a certain “social boom” which usually happens whenever there is in dire need for revolution.

Most of the social changes are the aftermath of something disturbing. Disturbing in a sense that a society is awakened for action.

It takes an extraordinary human to change a mindset. This, Martin Luther King Jr. pursued.

Why he did it …

Martin Luther King Jr. is a famous hero not only for the black masses in America but also for the other racial classes all over the world. His preaching and activism has made thousands of people listen to him. And not only did they listen, they were also convinced that it was time for change- wherein everyone lives equally without any racial discrimination.

The African-American slavery has been a sensitive part of history. Not only that, other minor races have experienced the same type of discrimination as well. Unfortunately, up until today there still are some circumstances where racial discrimination occurs. But new generations have been able to cope with the way of the world and as the world gets older, most of the significant events in the past remain nothing but part of history.

How he did it …

King's approach to social change was different because he believed that change does not need to be the result of something violent. We can all produce the change we want to happen through proper awareness and conviction. He followed Gandhi's principles of nonviolence and peace. He was active in fighting for civil rights. His advocacy has led many inferior minorities to stand up and fight for their rights.

His Significance

King was truly an epitome of heroism. His works gave him the chance of being the youngest to receive a Nobel Peace Prize in 1963. He had a cause, he deserved for it moreover, he died because of it. King was assassinated in Memphis in 1968. Because of the propaganda he's trying to pursue, he received hundreds of death threats.

Martin Luther King Jr.'s highlight in history was his speech entitled “I Have a Dream” that took place on the steps of Lincoln Memorial on August 28, 1963. One of his most compelling lines was nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: we hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal. ”

Tribute to the Less Known Local Star – Badi Uzzaman (1939-2011)

Sometimes we crave for a glimpse of a super star, we die to touch them or exchange few words with them. However, sometimes we fail to acknowledge a similar talent existing in our own community. Badi Uzzaman performing in Guantánamo: Honor Bound to Defend Freedom, 2004. Photograph: Tristram Kenton There was a very common face…

Sometimes we crave for a glimpse of a super star, we die to touch them or exchange few words with them. However, sometimes we fail to acknowledge a similar talent existing in our own community.

Badi Uzzaman performing in Guantánamo: Honor Bound to Defend Freedom, 2004. Photograph: Tristram Kenton

There was a very common face moving around on the streets of Housnlow, Isleworth, Twickenham and Richmond. Even after achieving great peaks of success in the field of acting domestically as well as globally, he never demonstrated any signs of arrogance or prejudice. He was a very down to earth individual.

His name reflected the character that he wore. He befriended anyone that he encountered, maybe if he was traveling en bus routes like H37 or 267, maybe if he was visiting the local supermarket. Not just that, he was always eager to try his luck; hence, apart from the national lottery on Wednesdays and Saturdays he was a patron of almost all the major betting offices. Badi had innovative ideas of trying his luck by manipulating his combination of numbers and no one can explain this better that the people who used to cater him. It was every morning that he arrived with a bunch of betting slips with combination of different numbers; that was not it; he had a reason to explain why he had selected those numbers and combination. For many regular punters he would sound idiot, noisy, distracting, and insane but Badi would embrace any such comments as compliments.

Not only betting offices, staff in local groceries, supermarkets, High Street stores, restaurants, pubs would know him personally, but not everyone knew what his profession and how he had mastered his art of being a local common person. For a man who has acted in more than 75 titles from British Cinema to Hollywood, such a low profile existence was next to unbelievable. He was also good chef with a generous heart. Ask many of these people what he was visiting regularly and they will tell how excited Badi was to share his home cooked lunch or dinner with them.

Badi has contributed a lot towards the British television. However, since his death on the 14th June 2011, people have almost forgotten the unsung hero. I know it was not because of any biasness towards his origin but it was all because of his low profile life and the down to earth relationships that he maintained with everyone in the community. If someone from the circle of his known people goes through Badi's profile on IMDB, they would realize how talented was this simple looking Asian man.

I am writing this in honor of this great man what I knew very closely. I am not his relative but just one of those men that Badi had bestowed his blessings of friendship on. He was indeed a Walking Marvel, who only believed in spreading love by making others happy. It's disgrace that not a single local publication took a note of the death anniversary or charged paying the slightest tribute to this great actor. Maybe one of the reasons was that people were not aware who really this man was.

How to Write Informational Articles on Humanitarian Issues

The other day, I was talking to a gentleman who had done some humanitarian work in Guatemala. I explained to him what I had learned about Honduras, the extreme poverty, and the challenges they had with human health, water, and the roads – getting things to and from the port for export, or into the…

The other day, I was talking to a gentleman who had done some humanitarian work in Guatemala. I explained to him what I had learned about Honduras, the extreme poverty, and the challenges they had with human health, water, and the roads – getting things to and from the port for export, or into the city to make money. Now then, seeing as he was a fellow writer, and had learned first-hand what is going on in Guatemala it seems that he should write about his experiences, and explain it to the world, as that would bring awareness.

Just today I was having a conversation with another lady, and we noted that many people go on medical missions to foreign third world countries and do great things, helping out the family's there, helping them build schools, drill wells, pulling teeth, fixing ailments , and all sorts of things. The people in the United States often give them and travel to these countries using their own money for these humanitarian causes. Still, we noted that there are many people who are doers, and so few people who are really good at writing.

If you are someone who is really good at writing, you should be telling your story, your experiences and observations, and allowing other people to understand what they will be dealing with if they to decide to volunteer for the cause, and that cause could be anything in any third world country, giving personal attention and humanitarian assistance one-on-one, person-to-person. So how does one go about writing informational articles on humanitarian issues?

First, I recommend spilling your guts, putting emotion into the story, telling the truth, and allowing the reader to feel and see the surroundings, and get to know the people as if they were they talking to them personally. This will form a bond with the reader and the people in the story, real people in the Third World nations. Then, I also recommend doing interviews with others who have also traveled on humanitarian missions to the same countries, sometimes in other villages and towns.

Then it makes sense to put these stories into bite-size articles and put them onto the Internet, to start a blog, and sometimes to collect all of these different stories, and tales of the trip and put them into e-books so people can download them, sometimes only for $ .99 on Amazon for instance. Lastly, I recommend that you talk very little about yourself, except for the emotions you felt when dealing with the people, for this is a story about real people, in real places, and their lives, and how we can make them better. Indeed, I hope you will please consider all this, tell your story – their story, and share this knowledge with the world.

The Melian Dialogue

I was once asked to study and discuss the opposing views of Athens does Thucydides present in “Pericles' Funeral Oration” and “The Melian Dialogue?” As I began to study the matter, I surprised why he presented such contrasting views. A focused reading of Thucydides '”Pericles' Funeral Oration” and “The Melian Dialogue” uncovers two clearly contrasting…

I was once asked to study and discuss the opposing views of Athens does Thucydides present in “Pericles' Funeral Oration” and “The Melian Dialogue?” As I began to study the matter, I surprised why he presented such contrasting views. A focused reading of Thucydides '”Pericles' Funeral Oration” and “The Melian Dialogue” uncovers two clearly contrasting views of the ancient city of Athens. The former, being a funeral origin, depicted Athens as the model city-state, worthy of emulation, while the latter shows the less flattering image of arrogant, Athenian military aggression.

I believe one of the keys to understanding this contrast lies in the following portion of the funeral origin:

“For there is justice in the claim that steadfastness in his country's battles should be as a cloak to cover a man's other imperfections; since the good action has blotted out the bad, and his merit as a citizen more than outweighed his demerits as an individual . ” (Thucydides 3)

Thucydides shows each side of the workings of this 'cloak' in these two pieces. As the fallen war heroes are eulogized before the city in “Pericles' Funeral Oration”, their valiant actions, typical for any Athenian, are justified and extolled as he outlines the four 'habits' that have caused Athens to achieve and maintain such greatness. These habits, the young orator, Pericles, son of Xanthippus, rhetorically identifies as the cause of Athens' success, “But what was the road by which we reached our position, what the form of government under which our greatness, what the national habits out of which it sprang; ” (Thucydides 2) Athens is thus, presented as a prototype city.

“The Melian Dialogue,” however, reveals what imperfections and demerits are laying beneeth its habits and victories. In these two pieces we see Athens, the virtuous city and Athens, the neighborhood bully. The steadfastness and sacrificial valiance of the fallen soldiers is contradicted with the aggressive, colonialism of Athens. Certainly Athens was an envied city, but perhaps she was not as virtuous as she appeared in her own eyes.

Beginning on page two of the translation of “Pericles 'Funeral Oration,” Pericles, son of Xanthippus, outlines four habits that have resolved in Athens' success. These being: their laws, their balance of work and pleasure, their military policy, and lastly, and their high culture. A brief sampling of each of the text will suffice herein.

The first habit consists of the superior laws and government of Athens. The Athenians were proud that their constitution did not copy the laws of neighboring states; they were rather. Its administration favored the many instead of the few and they felt that was why it was a democracy. Upon looking at their laws, they found that they agreed equal justice to all men.

Next, the leisurely pleasures that Athens afforded its citizens was vital to their success. They provided plenty of means for the mind and body to be refreshed from the stress of business affairs. They celebrated games and sacrifices throughout the year, and the elegance of their many private establishments formed a daily source of pleasure for Athenians.

Continuing, Athens' military might was an important aspect of their society. “If we turn to our military policy, there also we differ from our antagonists. We throw our city to the world, and never by alien acts exclude foreigners from any opportunity of learning or observing …” (Thucydides 2) Interestingly, Pericles positions Athens as the protagonist who is simply defending herself from the 'antagonists'. Later, he employs the word assailants as well. This time, he admits that Athens, herself, also plays the role of the antagonist, “For Athens alone of her contemporaries is found when tested to be greater than her reputation, and alone gives no occasion to her assailants to blush at the antagonist by what they have been worsted … “(Thucydides 3)

Finally, the culture of Athens was highly sophisticated one. “Nor are these the only points in which our city is worthy of admiration. We cultivate refinement without extravagance and knowledge without effeminacy; wealth we employ more for use than for show … Our public men have, besides politics, their private affairs to attend to, and our ordinary citizens, although occupied with their pursuits, are still fair judgments of public matters. ” (Thucydides 3)

Far removed from the proud citizens of Athens finest, Thucydides turns our attention to the front lines of battle in “The Melian Dialogue.” Here we see a glimpse of what Pericles would never share with the distinguished citizens of Athens. Simply stated, the Athenians came to the island of Metos to enslave, or to kill the Melians.

The first peek behind their honorable cloak of steadfastness in one of country's battles is the sheer magnitude of their army. They overwhelmed the Melians with a show of force. The Athenians also made an expedition against the isle of Melos with thirty ships of their own; sixteen hundred heavy infantry, three hundred archhers, and twenty mounted archers from Athens, and about fifteen hundred heavy infantry from the allies and the islanders. They intended to force the Melians into servitude. This is a stark contrast to “We throw open our city to the world, and never by alien acts exclude foreigners from any opportunity of learning or observing …” (Thucydides 1)

Actually, the real mindset of the Athenians viewed the Melians as inferior. They saw them as islanders and weaker than others rendering it all the more critical that they do not succeed in defeating “the masters of the sea.” (Thucydides 2) In the reminder of this conference, The Athenians go on to deride the Melians' hope, strength and even their trust in the gods. This is the ugly side of Athens. Perhaps the fifth habit responsible for Athens' success was her aggressive military conquests.

Why did Thucydides present such contrasting views in a simple funeral agreement and “The Melian Dialogue”?

Undoubtedly, he was privy to much of the inner workings of Athenian politics, scandal, and hypocrisy. He wanted to savage nature of Athens' success to be seen and judged in the same light as its finer attributes. He wanted to expose the realities that came with a democracy that favored the many instead of the few. He understood the dangers of elevating the beloved, hidden 'imperfections' of the state at the expense of human life and dignity. He wanted his readers to understand these things equally as well.

Ancient Greek Culture

Ancient Greek culture is rich with tradition and far reaching influence. Consider how much information about the economy, government, social structure and religion of ancient Greece is found in “Works and Days”, by Hesiod; and “The Iliad”, by Homer. Each provides a wealth of information on these subjects. Through the two documents, we gain amazing…

Ancient Greek culture is rich with tradition and far reaching influence. Consider how much information about the economy, government, social structure and religion of ancient Greece is found in “Works and Days”, by Hesiod; and “The Iliad”, by Homer. Each provides a wealth of information on these subjects. Through the two documents, we gain amazing insight into ancient Greek culture. Not every aspect of the culture is finely articulated, but one quickly gains an understanding of the religion, economy, government, social structures and values ​​of the people of that time.

Immediately, upon reading the excerpts of “Works and Days,” one is stuck with the overeaching preeminence of religion in ancient Greek culture. A quick scan of the document shows that Zeus, the chief god of the gods, is mentioned some 32 times in the piece. This main god was omnipotent, omniscient, omnipresent and just. Known to every inhabitant was the legend of his involvement in the affairs of men. It was known that he could easily make one strong and easily he could bring the strong man low; easily he could humble the proud man and raise the humble man; furthermore, he could easily straighten the crooked and destroy the proudest of men. Religion was vital to early Greek culture. Additional mythical / religious figures often mentioned and referenced include the nine Muses of Persia, Zeus' daughters who are said to “give glory through song,” (Hesiod 1); Cronos, the father of Zeus, the bright-eyed goddess Athena, and “the gods who dwell on Olympus.” (Hesiod 5)

Religion seemed to foster a sense of divine justice in ancient Greek culture. It also encouraged right actions and ancient Greek customs in people. The concept of hell, or an ill fated judgment from God was present as well, as we see from the Iliad, “He ended, and the shadow of death came down upon him, and his soul flew forth of his limbs and was gone to the house of Hades, “and” yet for all my sorrow for the rest I mourn them all less than this one alone, for whatever my sharp justification will bring me down to the house of Hades even Hector. ” (Homer 6, 7) The citizens knew of the greatness of Zeus, and they used simple exhortations to remember one another of his all seeing eye. This served the purpose of keeping people in line and caused them to think before acting hastily. This aspect of the ancient Greeks' culture was upheld like a science.

Works and Days also alludes to aspects of the economy and a social structure which included “You princes,” (Hesiod 5) “rich man … potter … craftsmen … beggar … and minstrel.” (Hesiod 1)

Not much detail is given, but there was clearly a division of labor and those who had the wherewithal observer that a man becomes more eager to work when he considers his neighbor, typified by a rich man who is diligent to plow and plant and keep his affairs in order. Social status must not have been static. Men were free to strive to be richer in this economic setting of ancient Greek culture.

The two works are relatively silent regarding the government of ancient Greece. From “Iliad”, we can deduce, however, that cities or regional areas acted independently from one another. There are many misunderstandings of Achains, the city of Troy, The Trojans, acting on their own, waging war or defending themselves. The Dardanian gates and the Slaian gate also indicate other established cities as well.

As for ancient Greek values, we can see that knowledge of and respect for the gods is clearly at the core of their values. The two works show us that the gods are continuously referenced, extolled, and brought into the everyday narratives of the people. Another value that floats to the surface in these two works is justice. From “Works and Days,” we learn that the better path is to go by on the other side towards justice; for Justice eats Outrage when she comes at length to the end of the race. But only when he has suffered does the fool learn this. For oat keeps pace with wrong sentences. There is a noise when Justice is being dragged in the way where those who devour bribes and give tenure with crooked judgments, take her. And she, wrapped in mist, follows to the city and haunts of the people, weeping, and bringing mischief to men, even to such as have driven her straight in that they did not deal directly with her.

Taken together, “Works and Days”, by Hesiod; and “The Iliad”, by Homer, give us an ample window through which to peer into ancient Greek culture and the chief values ​​of the ancient Greeks. Different aspects of each are presented, therein. Much of the ancient Greek society and culture has survived (with some change, of course), and comprise parts of our Western culture and values ​​today.

Characteristics of Civilization in Ancient China

I was once instructed to find examples that show that China had the characteristics of civilization, and also to show how Chinese civilization was different from that of Mesopotamia and Egypt. Examples demonstrating that China possessed the characteristics of civilization are numerous. When one considers their ceremonial temples, their Book of Wisdom, the I-Ching, their…

I was once instructed to find examples that show that China had the characteristics of civilization, and also to show how Chinese civilization was different from that of Mesopotamia and Egypt. Examples demonstrating that China possessed the characteristics of civilization are numerous. When one considers their ceremonial temples, their Book of Wisdom, the I-Ching, their world renown poetry and cuisine, the simple longevity of their society, and their over-crowded cities, it is remarkable that the Chinese knew just as much about civilization as did the Mesopotamians and the Egyptians. Conversely, however, the Chinese also differed in their experience of a civil society. We'll explore the commonalities and differences herein. As you may know, the main five characteristics of a civilization are large population centers in cities, writing, ritual centers, continuity, and the arts.

China had a highly developed cultural core which was used to promote a moral order for its people. As the text “China: The Mandate of Heaven” (Wood) discloses, Confucius suggested that the “state is a moral order sustained by merit, ritual, and reverence for ancestors.” (Wood) Every aspect of the Chinese civilization was initially imbued with these values. The ceremonial temples, and shrines through China were a large part of this. These ritual centers draw millions to China's major cities. Of note are the blamed Taoist temple atop the sacred mountain, Tai Shan, in the Shandong province, and the monument to Confucius in Suzhou, China.

The Chinese Book of Wisdom, the I-Ching, was another example of the presence of the characteristics of civilization in China. Considered one of the benchmarks of Eastern writing, it tested to the importance of the written word in Chinese society. This is a vital document for anyone studying the history of ancient civilization.

Additionally, there were the arts of China. Arts, as we know, are one of the fundamental characteristics of civilization. The poets, Li Po and Du Fu, headed the list of a long tradition of the Chinese arts. If cuisine were allowed to be classified among the arts, then Chinese cuisine would lead the world. It was one of the earliest known, and mostought after cuisines. Their centuries old, famous dishes have evolved into a literal art form.

It is common knowledge that China boasts the world's largest population. Much of this populated remained and still resides in China's cities. While the details of the particular living arrangements and standards of living among the millions of residents of cities like Kai Thanks, Shanghai, Beijing, Hong Kong and Tianjin are the topic of another setting, none can doubt China's commitment to living in cities. This is one of the most obvious characteristics of civilization that China demonstrates well.

Finally, China is one of the oldest civilizations on Earth. Their culture and traditions impressively span several millennia, as those who've studied any ancient civilization of the world well know. They have demonstrated the type of inter-generational continuity that few other civilizations have enjoyed. While parallels to all of these examples can be found in the civilizations of Mesopotamia and Egypt, three examples, in particular, serve to accentuate some differences between the three civilizations.

In ancient China:

1 – One man set the tone forever

2 – Religion was less dogmatic

3. An integral component of the society was imported

While possessing the same characteristics of civilization as other ancient civilizations of the world, one prime area of ​​difference was with regard to leadership. As stated, one man significantly influential Chinese society forever … single handedly! In Mesopotamia and Egypt, tribes, elders and divine kings set the tone for society for hundreds of years. Confucius believed and promulgated the belief that 'goodness' was the foundation of a successful civilization. Leaders were therefore, only granted authority for as long as they remained 'upright'. Confucius was concerned with establishing a sustainable moral order on Earth. Confucius alone is to be credited with shaping China's civilization, past and present. While both Mesopotamia and Egypt had their heroes, their influence was not as far reaching as Confucius' was on China.

Secondly, in China religion had a much humbler, less dogmatic tone than the religions of Mesopotamia and Egypt. There was less talk of the divine, or divine directives, and more of an emphasis on personal enlightenment and honoring one's lineage. It seems that the Chinese were more concerned about spirituality than traditional forms and themes of religion. With the introduction of Taoism in China, the 'right path' was bought by all. Even this, itself, is a contrast to the religions of Mesopotamia and Egypt. The act of searching for the 'right path' was an admission that one did not know the path and had to find it. This thought was juxtaposed with the more dogmatic, propitiation laced polytheistic religions of Mesopotamia and Egypt.

There was also the issue of Buddhism. This was an imported idea from India. While all three civilizations learned from other cultures and made their distinct, major contributions to humanity over the years, among the three, only China imported a major component of its civilization from another country. Buddhism came from India. It appeared to perfectly compliment Confucianism and Taoism, stressing inner enlightenment and ritual meditation. The Chinese quickly adopted and employed its precepts.

Taken together, all of these many examples prove that the Chinese held the requisite characteristics of civilization. We could further conclude that the Chinese are masters of city life. Alchemists, if you will, carefully combining the arts, large populations in cities, ceremonial temples and other ritual centers, time honored writings, and an unrivaled continuity into a tightly knit civilization while maintaining significant deviations from the paths towards civilization that Mesopotamia and Egypt had taken.

How Ancient Greek Democracy Worked

It is not difficult to describe how ancient Greek democracy worked. Actually, it is different from our present-day form of democracy, but still pretty straight forward and easy to understand. Ancient Greek democracy found its origins in the city if Athens, Greece. Our current system of 'democracy', although different than the Athenian version, owes its…

It is not difficult to describe how ancient Greek democracy worked. Actually, it is different from our present-day form of democracy, but still pretty straight forward and easy to understand. Ancient Greek democracy found its origins in the city if Athens, Greece. Our current system of 'democracy', although different than the Athenian version, owes its existence to this form of governing. As the scholar, Marvin Perry, pointed out, “Athenian democracy embodied the principle of the legal state – a government based not on force but on laws debated, devised, altered, and obeyed by free citizens.” In this brief article we will briefly outline the workings of Greek democracy, and what differs between it and the form of democracy which we enjoy today.

Prof. John Keane, of Westminster University, states in the video series, “In Search of Democracy”, “Democracy means self governing through the assembly”. (Part 2) This self governance manifested itself through six main institutions. Each part was integral in the operations of the whole system. Comprising the main institutions were the Assembly, the Council of 500, the People's Court, the Archons, the Council of the Areopagus, and finally, the Generals.

The 'how' of the ancient Greek democracy is quite simple. Basically, everything flowed interdependently through these six institutions. Legislation was introduced and passed by the will of the people. The law was enforced by the military and crime was judged and punished by the people themselves. As we shed some light on the individual institutions, themselves, we'll see the synergy upon which the ancient Greeks' democracy was built and the society was governed.

This early Greek democracy had as its foundation the idea of ​​the Assembly, Ekklesia, in Greek. Historian, Christopher W. Blackwell, wrists in “Athenian Democracy: A Brief Overview”, the Assembly was “the regular gathering of male Athenian citizens to listen to, discuss, and vote on decrees that affected every aspect of Athenian life, both public and private … “Notice, the assembly consulted of male citizens only. While women enjoyed citizen status, they, as well as foreigners and slaves were denied a place among the assembly. Assembly members met frequently to propose, debate, and vote on legislation and other matters of the state. This was unduly a lengthy process, as each member was allowed to speak and participate in an orderly fashion.

The Council of 500 (originally 400) consist of 500 members, each serving a one year term. Each member of the council was taken from among the Assembly. The Council was responsible for managing the ports, the military installations, and other state property. Most importantly, they prepared the agenda for the Assembly. As we see, each component of ancient Greek democracy was vital to its smooth operation.

In Aristotle's Athenian Constitution, we read, “There was also to be a Council, consisting of four hundred and one members, elected by lot from among those who possessed the franchise. who were over thirty years of age; and no one might hold office twice until everyone else had had his turn, after which they were to cast the lot afresh. ” (Aristotle Part 4)

History tells us that these council members were paid. The inclination towards a career in professional politics was complicated by the imposed term limit of one year, and the opportunity to only serve two terms in one's lifetime. However, the pay was substantial enough to afford one year of absence from his chief trade to tend to the affairs of the state.

The People's Court formed what essentially was the primary judicial arm of ancient Greek democracy. These were known as 'jury courts', consisting of the citizens, themselves. In such courts, the jurors would hear cases before them, and decide the fates of those on trial. Again, turning to Aristotle, we see that “There are three points in the constitution of Solon which appear to be its most democratic features: first and most important, the prohibition of loans on the security of the debtor's person; secondly, the right of every person who so willed to claim redress on behalf of any one to whatever wrong was done; thirdly, the institution of the appeal to the jurycourts; and it is to this last, they say that the masses have owed their strength most of all, since, when the democracy is master of the voting-power, it is master of the constitution. Moreover, since the laws were not drawn up in simple and explicit terms (but like the one concerned inheritances and wards of state), disputes inevitably occurred, and the courts had to decide in every matter, whether public or private. ” (Aristotle Part 9)

Next in Greek democracy were the Archons. This was a group of nine men who were especially the chief leaders of the city of Athens. They were highly educated and honored individuals, originally responsible for making various judgments regarding public, military and religious affairs.

The fifth vital piece of ancient Greek democracy was the Areopagus, or Council of the Areopagus. This was a council of men who had served as judges with jurisdiction over cases of murder and other serious crimes. The court was supervised of former Archons, and its members served for life. Citing the ancient writer, Demosthenes, we learn that “You are all of course aware that in the Areopagus, where the law both permits and enjoins the trial of homeless, first, every man who brings accusation of such a crime must make oath by invoking destruction upon himself, his kindred, and his household; secondly, that he must not treat this oath as an ordinary oath, but as one which no man swears for any other purpose; for he stands over the entrails of a boar, a ram, and a bull, and they must have been slaughtered by the necessary officers and on the days appointed, so that in respect both of the time and of the functionaries every requirement of solemnity has been satisfied. does not gain immediate credibility; and if any falsehood is brought home to him, he will carry away with him to his children and his kindred the stain of perjury-but gain nothing. a just charge, and if he p roves the accused guilty of murder, even then he has no power over the convicted criminal; only the laws and the appointed officers have power over the man for punishment. “(Dem. 23.67-69).

Lastly, were the generals. The generals were entrusted with the military welfare and affairs of the state. Again, Aristotle informs us, “Four year after the establishment of this system, in the archonship of Hermocreon, they first imposed upon the Council of Five Hundred the oath which they take to the present day. , one from each tribe, while the Polemarch was the commander of the whole army. ” (Aristotle Part 22)

As has been demonstrated, these six facets of ancient Greek democracy each contributed to the proper functioning of the whole. The Assembly, the Council of 500, the People's Court, the Archons, the Council of the Areopagus, and the Generals were the people, themselves. Most of the familiar trappings of politics were avoided because of the intentionally short term limits. The people performed the will of the people.

As has been shown, this early Greek democracy was an intensively participative form of government, as opposed to our modern representative form of government. Today the United States has what is traditionally been labeled a democracy, when in fact, it is a Republic. The main difference between our government and heads is the cyclical election of public officials who go to the various state offices and to Washington to represent their constituents. Our voices do count, but not in the direct, everyday inner workings of legislating, ruling and judging the citizenry.

Additionally, today's political figures are well paid, and most (if not all) pursue politics as a career. This differs greatly from the model of classical Greek democracy. It has also led to an endless string of scandals, too numerous to cite here. Public officials are not confidently trusted by the governed masses under our system, and are

This cynicism has evolved into a general distrust of government and a desire by the citizens to be protected from the constant intrusions of 'Big Brother'. Our text affirms this sentiment, “We are concerned with protecting the individual from the state, which we often see as a threat to personal freedom and a hindrance to the pursuit of our personal lives … the Greeks were not concerned with keeping safeguards against the state; they did not view the state as an alien force, to be afraid or to be protected against. ” (Perry 63)

Many of the original ideas from ancient Greek democracy have been preserved in our present Republic. Ours is a more refined system, sometimes. Our brand of democracy serves as a model of justice and freedom through the world in much the same way that the fledgling democracy of Greece once did. While far from perfect, the checks and balances in our system serve to balance the powers of government in very unique and ingenious ways.

Selected Works Cited:

Aristotle, “The Athenian Constitution,” translated by Sir Frederic G.Kenyon. 350 BCE http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/athenian_const.1.1.html

Demosthenes. Demosthenes with an English translation by AT Murray, Ph.D., LL.D. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1939.

Chandra Gupta Maurya: The Charismatic Emperor

Chandragupta Maurya was born sometime around 340 BC, reportedly in Patna, now located in the Bihar state of India. There are many arguments about his birth and his parents. Some texts claim that both of Chandragupta's parents were of the Kshatriya ie warrior / prince caste, while others state that his father was a king…

Chandragupta Maurya was born sometime around 340 BC, reportedly in Patna, now located in the Bihar state of India. There are many arguments about his birth and his parents. Some texts claim that both of Chandragupta's parents were of the Kshatriya ie warrior / prince caste, while others state that his father was a king but his mother was a maid from the lowly Shudra ie servant caste. Chandragupta's grandson, Ashoka the Great, later claimed a blood relationship to Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha, but this claim is uncorroborated.

From an early tender age, Chandragupta was valiant and charismatic born leader. The young man came to the attention of a famous Brahmin scholar, Chanakya, who bore a grudge against the Nanda King. The reason being, Nanda King Dhananand had insulted Chanakya in front of all courters and kicked him out of his court. Chanakya began to groom Chandragupta to conquer and rule in the place of the Nanda Emperor. He helped the young man to raise an army, and taught him various tactics.

Chandragupta associated himself to the king of a mountain kingdom, Puru, who had been defeated by Alexander and later sunset out to conquer the Nanda. Initially, the upstart's army was repulsed, but after a long series of battles Chandragupta's forces cordoned the Nanda capital at Pataliputra. In 321 BC, the capital fell, and 20-year-old Chandragupta Maurya started his own dynasty, The Mauryan Empire.

Chandragupta's new empire, at the time of its founding, extended from what is now Afghanistan in the west to Myanmar in the west, and from Jammu & Kashmir in the north to the Deccan Plateau in the south. Chanakya served as the equivalent of a “prime minister” in the fledgling government.

Chandragupta Maurya was only a teenager when Alexander the Great of Macedonia invaded India. Facing stiff resistance all through and hampered by the high HindKush Mountains, Alexander's army lost its will to conquer India at the Battle of Jhelum. When Alexander the Great died in 323 BC his generals divided up his empire into “satraps”, so that each of them would have a territory to rule. By nearly 316 BC, Chandragupta Maurya was able to defeat and incorporate all of the satraps in the mountains of Central Asia, extending his empire to the edge of what are now Iran, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan.

In 305 BC, Chandragupta decided to expand his empire into eastern Persia also. At the time, Persia was ruled by Seleucus founder of the Seleucid Empire, and a former general under Alexander. Chandragupta obtained a large area in eastern Persia. In the peace treaty that ended this war, Chandragupta got control of that land as well as the hand of one of Seleucus's daughters in marriage. In exchange, Seleucus got 500 war elephants, which he put to use at the Battle of Ipsus later.

With as much territory as he could comfortably rule to the north and west, Chandragupta Maurya next turned his attention south. With an army of four lakh, Chandragupta conquered the entire Indian subcontinent except for Kalinga on the east coast, and the Tamil kingdom at the farthest southern tip of the land-mass. By the end of his reign, Chandragupta Maurya had unified almost the entire Indian subcontinent under his rule.

The Chandragupta's queen's name was Durdhara, the mother of his first son, Bindusara. According to legend, Prime Minister Chanakya was concerned that Chandragupta might be poisoned by his enemies, so he started introducing small amounts of poison into the emperor's food in order to build up a tolerance. Chandragupta was oblivious of this plan, and shared some of his food with his wife Durdhara when she was very pregnant with their first son. Durdhara died, but Chanakya hurried in and performed an emergency operation to remove the full-term baby. The infant Bindusara survived, but a bit of his mother's poisoned blood touched his forehead, leaving a blue “bindu” spot that inspired his name.

When he was in his fifties, Chandragupta became fascinated with Jainism, an extremely ascetic belief system. His guru was the Jain saint Bhadrabahu.As a result, in 298 BC; the emperor renounced his rule, handing over power to his son Bindusara. Chandragupta traveled south to a cave at Shravanabelogola, now in Karntaka. There, the founder of the Mauryan Empire meditated without eating or drinking for five weeks, until he died of starvation ..

The dynasty that Chandragupta founded rule over India and the south of Central Asia until 185 BC His grandson Ashoka followed in Chandragupta's footsteps in several ways ie conquering territory as a young man, but then becoming devoutly religious as he aged. In fact, Ashoka's reign in India may be the purest expression of Buddhism in any government in history. Today, Chandragupta is remembered as the unifier of India.

The Five Main Elements of Civilization

Although the elements of civilization and the emergence of civilization have been studied extensively, I never wave the topic much thought. That is, until I was tasked with finding at least five elements that are characteristics of a civilization that make it different from non-civilized peoples. Initially, this seemed like a daunting task, but upon…

Although the elements of civilization and the emergence of civilization have been studied extensively, I never wave the topic much thought. That is, until I was tasked with finding at least five elements that are characteristics of a civilization that make it different from non-civilized peoples. Initially, this seemed like a daunting task, but upon viewing the video “Iraq: The Cradle of Civilization” (Wood) and reading the assigned portion of “Western Civilization: Ideas, Politics, and Society, 1” (Perry), it was that there are a number of distinct elements which characterize every civilization. Namely, large population centers in cities, writing, ceremonial buildings, or ritual centers, continuity, and the arts. Each of these characteristics of civilization works synergistically, making civilized societies stand out in stark contrast from those non-civil societies which preceded them. A brief overview of some of these vital components will demonstrate their importance.

Firstly, large population centers in cities are one of the elements of civilization. The word civilization, itself, can be most easily expressed as life in cities. The area of ​​Suma, or Mesopotamia, in southern Iraq, was birthplace of the first city, Uruch (Ur). The vast lands, made fertile by the constant flow of life from the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers were the ideal place to farm and sustain the hordes of people drawn to this city. Naturally, people congregated in increasing numbers to this prototype city.

Secondly, writing is another one of the elements of civilizations. In fact, some would argue that writing was invented in Uruch. The obvious advantage of which was the ability to transmit and pass down to posterity important cultural, spiritual truths and stories. Although the oral legend of the people of this era is well documented, the story of this people was now being preserved and distributed through the written word.

Equally important were the ceremonial buildings and ritual centers which peppered the landscape of Ur. Shrines, alters, and temples served a central role in ancient civilization, as they also do today. Tied to the religious and cultural fabric of the society was ritualistic worship and ceremonies. These ritual centers were considered holy places and like the fertile land itself, served as a people magnet.

Continuity is another characteristic of civilization. Unlike nomadic peoples, civil societies, by definition were sedentary societies. Of course, people and ideas flowed in and out of the first civilizations, but there was the element of perpetual inhabitants. No doubt, ownership and private property rights were natural products of this continuity as people opted to settle in the cities.

Lastly, the arts are another one of the essential elements of civilization. As legend has it, the arts were sent down by Enki, the God of Wisdom, through the Goddess Innana, known today as Ishtar. Decorative arts, pottery, jewelry, 'fancy' clothing and ritual ornaments were increasingly popular commodities during this time. As the people's standard of living improved in the first cities, there was more time (relatively speaking) for the leisure indulgences that the arts afforded.

Clearly, there are other non-negotiable elements of civilization; laws, government, social (class) systems, etc. As is evident, prominent among these characteristics are large population centers in cities, writing, ritual centers, continuity, and the arts. In contrast, non-civilized societies are wanting in all of these aspects.

Modern Day Hero Steve Jobs: I Came, I Saw, I CEO

“Being the richest man in the cemetery does not matter to me. Going to bed at night saying we've done something wonderful, that's what matters to me.” – Steve Jobs With the fast-paced innovations of technology in this millennium, it opened its doors to several new business ideas. For the past few decades, we have…

“Being the richest man in the cemetery does not matter to me. Going to bed at night saying we've done something wonderful, that's what matters to me.” – Steve Jobs

With the fast-paced innovations of technology in this millennium, it opened its doors to several new business ideas. For the past few decades, we have heard and read stories about several startup businesses founded by young individuals who are already wizards in their own right. We regard them as modern day heroes who helped shaped the world to what we now see it is today. One of these guys is Steve Jobs. His name is already synonymous with charisma and inspiration.

He was the Chairman, CEO and co-founder of Apple Inc. which is a leading manufacturer of electronic devices such as the Macintosh Computer (MAC), iPod, iPhone, and the music and video software called iTunes. Jobs is regarded by many as an intense creative entrepreneur whose passion for perfection and ferocious drive revolutionized six industries. These include the personal computers, animated movies, music, phones, tablet computing, and digital publishing. Known as a business and sales wizard, he is credited with many of the electronicventions now patented by Apple. He was also the CEO of Pixar Animation Studios until it was acquired by Disney in 2006.

He was born Steven Paul Jobs in San Francisco to Joanne Carole Schieble and Syrian Abdulfattah John Jandali but he was adopted by Paul and Clara Jobs. He attended the Cupertino Middle School followed by high school at Homestead HS in the same town of Cupertino. He spent his childhood in the South Bay area, which would later known as Silicon Valley. During high school, he held a summer job at Hewlett-Packard Company in Palo Alto. While attending lectures and working at HP, he met Steven Wozniak who later later co-founded Apple.

Just like any other dot billionaires, Steve Jobs dropout from college. He attended Reed College in Portland, Oregon, for about six months. When he returned to California in 1974, he began attending meetings at the Homebrew Computer Club with his friend Wozniak. At that time, he took a job at Atari and discovered that a popular whistle could emulate the tones needed to make long distance phone calls with AT & T. That idea sparked him to convinces Wozniak to go into business with him to create “blue boxes,” a device to make free long distance phone calls.

Later, he continued to work with Wozniak on other projects and one of those is a computer that Wozniak had built for himself. On April 1, 1976, they founded Apple Inc., which started with printed circuit boards. Their first personal computer is called the Apple I and sold it for $ 666.66. It was followed with the Apple II, which is a large success for their business and they being selling shares in December of 1980.

In 1984, they introduced the Macintosh which was later became a huge success. It is the first personal computer with a graphical user interface (GUI) in which individuals could interact with the items on the screen. As Apple grew even more, Jobs experienced tension with the board that led him to leave Apple in May of 1985.

In 1986, Steve Jobs went on to found the company called NeXT, a company designed around aesthetic interpersonal computing. It later focused more on software development. The said company has a major role in the development of email and the world wide web. In 1996, Apple acquired NeXT, reinstating Jobs as the Chief Executive Officer.

Jobs is remembered by many for his work ethic. Such characteristic has helped developed Apple to a very successful company that it is today. Jobs also help the company avoid bankruptcy in the 1990s. He is also instrumental in the establishment of the new electronic divisions as well as the creation of the iPod, iPhone, and other personal devices. On the October 5, 2011, Steve Jobs died after complications with pancreatic cancer.

Tragic Flaw (Hamartia) Of Hamlet

Undoubtedly, Shakespeare is a great literary figure of his age. His contribution to drama and other literary terms is excellent and unforgetable. It is useless to criticize against such person. Christopher Marlowe, one of the university wits, wave few dramas to the age but he enriched it with such literary term. His dramas are watched…

Undoubtedly, Shakespeare is a great literary figure of his age. His contribution to drama and other literary terms is excellent and unforgetable. It is useless to criticize against such person. Christopher Marlowe, one of the university wits, wave few dramas to the age but he enriched it with such literary term. His dramas are watched and read with great curiosity through out the world. His work has not paid him only reputation but also made his name immortal. He wrote a total of 37 plays in his lifetime, all of which can be categorized under tragedy, comedy, or history.

Before discussing the tragic flaw or hamartia of Hamlet, it is better to know something about the word 'hamartia' used by Aristotle in his work, 'The Poetics'. According to him, the tragic hero is not perfect, and misfortune falls on him by some fault of his own. Aristotle uses the Greek word, 'Hamartia'. Its root meaning is, 'missing the mark'. AC Bradley translates it, 'tragic flaw'. Aristotle uses it, 'error of judgment'. Hamartia is not moral imperfection but it is an error of judgment whether it is arising from ignorance of some material fact or from rashness and impulsiveness of temper or from some passion. The hero commits various errors in series which seem unknown to him. At last, they create a very strange situation that leads the hero to his catastrophe.

Hamlet, a prince of Denmark, is a well educated and sympathetic person. He is morally a good person and mostly liked by all, despite it, he is not a saint or perfect man. Apart from it, he can not be called a villain because he does not perform such action that may prove him a villain. It is his love for his parents that becomes the cause of his catastrophe, but he is unknown to the errors that he commits in love. Aristotle talks about an intermediate person who commits errors unknowingly. He further talks about hastiness in action and light temperedness as the main weapons of hamartia, leading the hero to catastrophe. Hamlet does not seem light tempered, but it is very fit for Othello. Undoubtedly, Hamlet is a tragic hero; he commits errors which became the cause of his tragedy. If Othello had been on the place of Hamlet, there would not have been tragedy. It is the skill of the playwright that moves the hero in a way that he may face his tragedy by committing tragic flaws.

Hamlet commits a series of errors which becomes the cause of his tragedy. Jan Knott says that Hamlet is like a Swiss cheese with all the holes. In his character, irresolution is a dominant factor and it gives birth to delay. It occurs due to his childish mood. Indeed, a man possesses very strange disposition, and a man who is the owner of a childish nature never thinks to harm the others. It is same condition with Hamlet that erupts pity and fear amongst the audience.

Through the drama, Hamlet is found in grief. His grief is the hasty marriage of his mother to his uncle Claudius. It hides his love for his mother and reveals his pure immaturity. Although he is a prince, he does not enjoy his status but wants to move the country on the foot steps of his father. Beside, when he heres the cause of his father's murder, his crime becomes double and leaves the other business of the kingdom. His inviting by his inner conflict lessens sympathy for others. He wants to take revenge of his father; he must come out of the challenge and hit the enemy a mortal strike. Apart from it, he is not helpless or weak; he can do any thing, but, in advance, he checks the accountability of his action.

In this drama, the author stages a play within play. Hamlet wants to make sure whatever his uncle Claudius is the murderer or not. His staging drama for this purpose was equal to make the enemy aware of his crime and plan. The enemy is clever; he takes swift steps to repel him or to contrive to harm his life. He is ascertained that Claudius is the real murderer of his father, it again jostles him into grief, and he thinks about his mother. Such step made the enemy stronger but him weaker. His soliloquy, wherein he calls women frail, creates doubt within him about his mother as accomplice in the murder. His grief continues, and he is unable to get rid of. When Hamlet watches the drama that is prepared by him, he becomes very emotional on the emotional speech of the player. In the second soliloquy, he calls himself rogue and peasant slave and a dull and muddy-mettled rascal who, like a John-a-dreams, can take no action. He is, indeed, besieged by self contempt. His becoming fiery and condemning himself means to resolve to take a measurable action to avenge of his father's death. This challenge gains his inner and external conflict.

Hamlet is not a successful lover. Shakespeare avoids falling him in the inferno of love, and it may be that he is childish. His his love is inclined to his mother that shows Oedipus complex. This love was perceived more apt for his tragedy. Undoubtedly, he loves Ophelia and she likes him, too. He, in haste or without any conformation, kills her father, and she loses her sense. It relied on him to support her, but he always thought about his mother. At last, she drowned to death in the river. When he comes back from the grip of the pirates, he sees the rite of her burying. There he repents on this accident. His participation aggravates the anger of Laertes, and his fire of revenge increases.

She was innocent and immature in love. It was Hamlet who raised her feelings of love, and she started moving on the unknown track of love. Hamlet did not completely introduce her to love. He left her in desert alone and deleted. When her father was killed, it was a great threat to her life. If she had been completely fallen in love of Hamlet, she would not have committed suicide. Shakespearean tragedies mostly give importance to the love of heroine, but here, it is different because importance is given to the love of mother. If she had been alive and in sense, there would have been a great resistance in the tragedy of the hero. She may have supported Hamlet, and Claudius would have been failed in his conspiracy of duel between Hamlet and Laertes. Shakespeare does not let Hamlet taste maiden love.

His soliloquies delve out his inner conflict. He finds Claudius busy in worship, and it was the best chance for him to take revenge but he comes into dilemma. Here Shakespeare introduces his popular soliloquy 'To be or not to be'. It means that he should kill him or not. If he killed him in this condition, he would go straight to heaven. He decides not to kill him. It shows his religious belief and fear as that child feels in darkness. Beside, it shows his existence. It verifies his first step to procrastination. He declares that it is conscience that resists him from the action and that's why irresolution comes into his actions. He stages a drama to find the reaction and passion of the murderer. Claudius becomes suspicious and deputes Polonius as spy. When he was engaged in conversation with his mother, he hid himself behind the curtain to listen their secret. Hamlet felt somebody there and realized that it might be Claudius. Without any proof, he, in disgust, killed him. Claudius was in search of such hasty action. He got opportunity to contrive against him. He takes benefit from his flaw and sends him abroad with a cruel plan.

His fourth soliloquy, too, shows his irresolution. Here he watches efforts and bravery of Fortinbras, the prince of Norway, and then he calculates him with himself. He attempts to revive his own desire for revenge against Claudius for the death of his father. Hamlet confronns himself lethargic because he does not think too precisely on an event, although he has cause, will, strength and means to get revenge. Apart from it, he has evidence that Claudius is the killer of his father. Hamlet finally decides that he must take action against Claudius in some form or fashion. Here he himself feet that he is the prey of procrastination that has happened due to irresolution.

His killing to Polonius is very strange. His soliloquies are proof of his delay in action. When he kills Polonius, he does not verify whether he is Claudius or some one else. It is his hastiness or childishness, and it appeals to the rule of Aristotle's concept of hamartia. Such immaturity stands the entire environment against him. He loses his love, makes enmity against Laertes and the king. He is alone and easy to be hunted by the enemies. Laertes is his mighty enemy who is under the spell of Claudius. He makes two plans to kill him. His first is to offer a poisonous cup before duel, if he avoided taking it, he would be the prey of poisonous sword of Laertes.

His mission was to take avenge of his father and to save his mother. He could not save his mother. His indecisive pursuit of revenge for his father's death confirms his major tragic flaw. In result, he is able to avenge for his father's death on his own death. He was a good person, and his devotion and struggle aroused pity and fear for him amongst the readers. Hamlet's irresolution is evident in his actions after viewing the emotion of the actors, after his third soliloquy, in his fourth soliloquy, and in his indecisive pursuit of revenge for his father's death. Hamlet was able to avenge his father's death, but his own death due to his irresolution labels him as a tragic hero.

In result, it is obvious that Hamlet is not a fiery person. He looks lethargic into actions, although he has everything. His delay that inflates his personality, but his death or tragedy restores his position. Even Fortinbras feels pity for him. It is really a great tragedy of a great tragic hero.

Julius Caesar and The Tumultuous 20th Century

The chief object of the following paragraphs is to explore the theoretical history of Julius Caesar and to find out the reason why the play has been produced countless times in the tumultuous 20th century. Some famous thinkers in history offered their own definitions of a theater using metaphors. But it was the metaphor used…

The chief object of the following paragraphs is to explore the theoretical history of Julius Caesar and to find out the reason why the play has been produced countless times in the tumultuous 20th century.

Some famous thinkers in history offered their own definitions of a theater using metaphors. But it was the metaphor used by no other than Shakespeare himself that captured the essence of a theater. He likened the theater to “a mirror”. Schopenhauer agreed with Shakespeare's metaphor. Schopenhauer wrote, “not going to the theater is like making one's toilet without a mirror” (Kuritz 1).

Theater then mirrors the life of the people and the society they habituate. And each generation differs in its reflection. Here, staging of Julius Caesardiffers one generation from the other.

Theatrical history

Julius Caesar was performed in different ways depending on which periods in history the performance happened. Four major periods have been identified which represent the different variations of the performances. These are the neo-classical, romantic, modern, and post-modern (Cox).).

Julius Caesar was first performed on September 11, 1599 at Globe Theater. That the director wave more emphasis on the costumes was evidenced by their elaborate design than the sets on the main stage. A movable statue of Pompey and a seat for Caesar were the only prominent properties set on stage.

The successful performances were recreated with a secular and political flavor (Cox). This shift happened in the 18th and early 19th centuries when the neo-classical and romantic styles of the performance were in vogue. John Ripley noticed changes in the vocabulary and syntax. He said that the vocabulary had been modernized, the syntax clarified without losing the original decorum of expression (Ripley 26).

In the 20th century (modern period), directors returned to the Folio text. They veered away from the precedent centuries' style that excluded some sections of the text. Also, the use of modern costumes became evident. Modern costumes and actions made actors project characters reminiscent of the leaders of this period. Caesar depicted a fascist dictator. Antony represented a political agitator; and Brutus, a naïve intellectual.

In the post-modern period, directors reconfigured the play so that it is devoid of the remnants of the styles of the precedent centuries. As such one can no longer find an accurate chronological account of an event. It departed from the concrete, and rather focused on concept and abstract interpretation of the play.

Of the four major periods, the twenty century has produced the highest number of performances of Julius Caesar.

Julius Caesar in the twentieth century

The reason why the play has been produced countless times in the tumultuous twenty century is that “Julius Caesar has great relevance to our time, because it is gloomier, because it is about a society that is doomed. such immense danger that the relevance is great “(Bloom 178).

The play mirrors the tumultuous situation of the twentieth century more clearly than the previous centuries. In this period, political leaders and society as a whole seemed helpless before a world that was on the verge of collapsing. Even the other well-intentioned individuals, they succumbed to their intellectual naiveté. Instead of keeping the society intact amidst the chaos of time, they ended up contributing to its decadence. They were like Brutus. He seemed to be overwhelmed by the situation he was in. Thinking he would help the society, the people in the name of Rome, he turned against Caesar and became part of the conspiracy to kill their leader. Thus, Harold Bloom declares, “The noble Brutus is even more at sea in the play than the unscrupulous and brutal Antony” (178).

The play then speaks more eloquently to the twenty century society than to any other societies prioring it. Julius Caesar performed at theater reflects the core problem of this period. The individuals in the play are not necessarily selfish. Their intellectual and spiritual fibers simply fail to withstand the crisis, and in the process, destroy the very society they bought to protect and preserve.

Work Cited

Bloom, Harold. Bloom's Shakespeare Through the Ages: Julius Caesar. Volume Editor: Pamela Loos. New York: Infobase Publishing, 2008.

Cox, John D. “Julius Caesar: Performance History.” 13 May 2012. http://internetshakespeare.uvic.ca/Library/Texts/JC/intro/StageHistory/default.aspx

Kuritz, Paul. The Making of Theater. USA: Prentice Hall College Div, 1998.

Ripley, John. Julius Caesar on Stage in England and America, 1599-1973. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1980.